Journal of Clinical Periodontology

Salivary interleukin-1β concentration and the presence of multiple pathogens in periodontitis

Authors

  • Ulvi Kahraman Gursoy,

    1. Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Institute of Dentistry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    2. Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland
    3. Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Cumhuriyet, Sivas, Turkey
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  • Eija Könönen,

    1. Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland
    2. Department of Periodontology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
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  • Veil-Jukka Uitto,

    1. Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Institute of Dentistry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
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  • Pirkko J. Pussinen,

    1. Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Institute of Dentistry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
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  • Kati Hyvärinen,

    1. Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Institute of Dentistry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
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  • Liisa Suominen-Taipale,

    1. Unit of Living Conditions, Health and Wellbeing, Department of Environmental Health in Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Kuopio, Finland
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  • Matti Knuuttila

    1. Institute of Dentistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
    2. Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Institute of Dentistry, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
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  • Conflict of interest and sources of funding statement
    The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interests.
    The present study is a part of the Health 2000 Health Examination survey, organized by National Institute for Health and Welfare of Finland. This study was supported in part by the research grants from the IADR/CED, the Orion Foundation, Finland (for U. K. G.), and the Academy of Finland (grant 78443 for E. K., and grant 118391 for P. J. P.).

Address:
Ulvi Kahraman Gursoy
Institute of Dentistry
Biomedicum
University of Helsinki
PO Box 63
00014 Helsinki
Finland
E-mail: ulvi.gursoy@helsinki.fi

Abstract

Aim: This study aimed to find salivary enzymes and/or cytokines that would reflect periodontitis, alone or in combination with salivary microbial markers.

Material and Methods: The salivary concentrations of elastase, lactate dehydrogenase, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α, and the presence of five periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, were analysed from salivary specimens of 165 subjects, a subpopulation of Health 2000 Health Examination Survey in Finland; 84 of the subjects had probing pocket depth (PPD) of geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted4 mm at 14 or more teeth (the advanced periodontitis group), while 81 subjects had no teeth with PPD of geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted4 mm (the control group). All subjects had at least 20 teeth and no systemic diseases.

Results: Among the salivary cytokines and enzymes tested, IL-1β was the only biomarker associated with periodontitis. An association was also found with the presence of multiple periodontal pathogens. Salivary IL-1β and the presence of multiple periodontal pathogens were associated with periodontitis at the same magnitude, when they were in the logistic regression model individually or together.

Conclusion: We suggest that salivary IL-1β and the presence of multiple periodontal pathogens in saliva should be studied more thoroughly as markers of periodontitis.

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