Aim: This study aimed to find salivary enzymes and/or cytokines that would reflect periodontitis, alone or in combination with salivary microbial markers.
Material and Methods: The salivary concentrations of elastase, lactate dehydrogenase, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α, and the presence of five periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, were analysed from salivary specimens of 165 subjects, a subpopulation of Health 2000 Health Examination Survey in Finland; 84 of the subjects had probing pocket depth (PPD) of 4 mm at 14 or more teeth (the advanced periodontitis group), while 81 subjects had no teeth with PPD of 4 mm (the control group). All subjects had at least 20 teeth and no systemic diseases.
Results: Among the salivary cytokines and enzymes tested, IL-1β was the only biomarker associated with periodontitis. An association was also found with the presence of multiple periodontal pathogens. Salivary IL-1β and the presence of multiple periodontal pathogens were associated with periodontitis at the same magnitude, when they were in the logistic regression model individually or together.
Conclusion: We suggest that salivary IL-1β and the presence of multiple periodontal pathogens in saliva should be studied more thoroughly as markers of periodontitis.