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Journal of Clinical Periodontology

Surface contamination of dental implants assessed by gene expression analysis in a whole-blood in vitro assay. A preliminary study

Authors

  • Sönke Harder,

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Prosthodontics, Propaedeutics and Dental Materials, Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
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    • both authors contributed equally.

  • Elgar S. Quabius,

    1. Department of Prosthodontics, Propaedeutics and Dental Materials, Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    2. Department of Immunology, Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
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    • both authors contributed equally.

  • Lars Ossenkop,

    1. Department of Prosthodontics, Propaedeutics and Dental Materials, Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
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  • Christian Mehl,

    1. Department of Prosthodontics, Propaedeutics and Dental Materials, Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
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  • Matthias Kern

    1. Department of Prosthodontics, Propaedeutics and Dental Materials, Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
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  • Conflict of interest and source of funding statement

  • This work was supported by a grant from the German Society of Prosthetic Dentistry and Biomaterials (DGPro).

  • The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Address:

Sönke Harder

Department of Prosthodontics

Propaedeutics and Dental Materials

Christian-Albrecht University of Kiel

Arnold-Heller Str. 16, 24105 Kiel

Germany

E-mail: sharder@proth.uni-kiel.de

Abstract

Aim

We aimed at evaluating pyrogen contamination of dental implants made of titanium and zirconia by using gene expression analysis in a whole-blood in vitro assay.

Material and Methods

Titanium and zirconia implants (five each) were incubated in human whole blood. Samples were assayed for gene expression levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR9, interleukin (IL)-1β, nuclear factor ‘kappa-light-chain-enhancer’ of activated B-cells (NF-kB), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) as indicators of surface contamination resulting in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated TLR- or TNF-mediated immune responses. Gene expression was assayed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Non-stimulated blood from the same donor served as a negative control, and blood stimulated with LPS served as a positive control. After dry-heat treatment with dry heat, all implants were re-analysed as described above.

Results

Both implant systems contained surface contaminants evoking a pro-inflammatory response similar to that induced by LPS. After dry-heat treatment, gene expression was significantly decreased to levels similar to those of negative control samples.

Conclusions

The results demonstrated LPS-like surface-bound contaminants in both tested implant systems. Depyrogenation with dry heat seems to be an effective means of reducing such contamination in dental implants.

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