SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • areca nut;
  • betel;
  • epidemiology, oral;
  • leukoplakia, oral;
  • oral mucosa diseases;
  • precancer;
  • smoking;
  • submucous fibrosis

Abstract 100 people on Hainan Island were studied for their smoking and chewing habits and the condition of their oral mucosa. Ninety-five percent of the study population chewed areca (betel) nut. In men this habit was supplemented with either smoking cigarettes or water pipe. In two men a small commissural leukoplakia was found. In three women clinical and histologic changes pointed towards oral submucous fibrosis.