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Comparison of GOHAI and OHIP-14 measures in relation to objective values of oral function in elderly Japanese


Kazunori Ikebe, Department of Prosthodontics, Gerodontology and Oral Rehabilitation, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka, Japan

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The aims of this study were to assess the correlations between the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) and to examine which survey is more sensitive to objectively measured oral function in the Japanese elderly.


The subjects were 290 community-dwelling, cognitively healthy, and independently living people over the age of 60 years (mean: 66.3 years). Measures included the GOHAI and OHIP-14 questionnaires, as well as self-rating of general and oral health, dry mouth, number of residual teeth, and objective values of occlusal force, masticatory performance, and salivary flow rate. Bivariate and linear regression analyses were used to identify which of these variables predicted GOHAI and OHIP-14 scores.


Spearman's correlation coefficient between the GOHAI and OHIP-14 scores was 0.728 (< 0.001), although the OHIP-14 showed a greater number of 0 scores, suggesting a greater floor effect. At the bivariate level, self-rating of general and oral health, dry mouth, number of residual teeth, occlusal force, and masticatory performance were associated with GOHAI and OHIP-14 scores. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that after controlling for the other significant variables, both the occlusal force (standardized regression coefficient [β] = −0.164, = 0.004) and masticatory performance (β = −0.125, = 0.019) had significant associations with the GOHAI score, whereas this association was not found with the OHIP score.


Although the GOHAI and OHIP-14 had a strong correlation, the GOHAI was more sensitive to the objective values of oral functions among independently living elderly persons in Japan.