• 1
    Mobini N, Toussalnt S, Kamino H. Noninfectious erythematous, papular and squamous diseases. In ElderDE, ElenitsasR, JohnsonBL, MurphyGF. Lever’s histopathology of the skin, 9th edn. Philadelphia, 2005: 179.
  • 2
    Kastelan M, Massari P, Gruber F, et al. Perforin expression is upregulated in the epidermis of psoriatic lesions. Br J Dermatol 2004; 151: 831.
  • 3
    Hussein MR, Al-Badaiwy ZH, Guirguis MN. Analysis of p53 and bcl-2 protein expression in the non-tumorigenic, pretumorigenic and tumorigenic keratinocytic hyperproliferative lesions. J Cutan Pathol 2004; 31: 643.
  • 4
    Gudjonsson JE, Johnston A, Sıgmundsdottır H, Valdımarsson H. Immunopathogenic mechanisms in psoriasis. Clin Exp Immunol 2004; 135: 1.
  • 5
    Yıldız L, Barış S, Senturk N, Kandemir B. Overexpression of bcl-2 in lymphocytes of psoriatic skin. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2003; 17: 538.
  • 6
    Kawashima K, Doi H, Ito Y, Shibata M, Yoshinaka R, Otsuki Y. Evaluation of cell death and proliferation in psoriatic epidermis. J Dermatol Sci 2004; 35: 207.
  • 7
    Pereira PR, Silva AS, Rebelo I, Figueiredo A, Quintanilha A, Teixeira F. The inflammatory response in mild and in severe psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 2004; 150: 917.
  • 8
    Koçak M, Bozdoğan Ö, Erkek E, Atasoy P, Birol A. Examination of Bcl-2, Bcl-X and bax protein expression psoriasis. Int J Dermatol 2003; 42: 789.
  • 9
    Takahashi H, Manabe A, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Hashimoto Y, Iizuka H. Aberrant expression of apoptosis-related molecules in psoriatic epidermis. J Dermatol Sci 2002; 28: 187.
  • 10
    Cumberbatch M, Singh M, Dearman RJ, Young HS, Kimber I. Impaired Langerhans cell migration in psoriasis. J Exp Med 2006; 203: 953.
  • 11
    Ybunes F, Quartey EL, Kiguwa S, Partridge M. Expression of TNF and the 55-kDa TNF receptor in epidermis, oral mucosa, lichen planus and squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Dis 1996; 2: 25.
  • 12
    Paul AT, Gohil VM, Bhutani KK. Modulating TNF-alpha signaling with natural products. Drug Discov Today 2006; 11: 725.
  • 13
    Duffy DC, Crowl-Bancroft CV, Chen Z, et al. Inhibition of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB by a mutant inhibitor-kappaBalpha attenuates resistance of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to TNF-alpha caspase-mediated cell death. Br J Cancer 2000; 83: 1367.
  • 14
    Sridhar J, Desylva P, Singh YD. Chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor alpha (infliximab) in psoriasis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2006; 72: 133.
  • 15
    Abbas AK, Fausto N. Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th edn. Philadelphia, 2005: 179.
  • 16
    Bovenschen HJ, Van De Kerkhof PC, Gerritsen WJ, Seyger MM. The role of lesional T cells in recalcitrant psoriasis during infliximab therapy. Eur J Dermatol 2005; 15: 454.
  • 17
    Ameglio BC. Cytokines in psoriasis. Int J Dermatol 1999; 38: 241.
  • 18
    Numerof RP, Asadullah K. Cytokine and anti-cytokine therapies for psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. BioDrugs 2006; 20: 93.
  • 19
    Takao J, Yudate T, Das A, et al. Expression of NF-kappaB in epidermis and the relationship between NF-kappaB activation and inhibition of keratinocyte growth. Br J Dermatol 2003; 148: 680.
  • 20
    Vestergaard C, Johansen C, Vestergaard C, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced CTACK/CCL27 (cutaneous T-cell-attracting chemokine) production in keratinocytes is controlled by nuclear factor kappaB. Cytokine 2005; 29: 49.
  • 21
    Newton R, Hart LA, Stevens DA, et al. Effect of dexamethasone on interleukin-1 beta-(IL-1 beta)-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and kappaB-dependent transcription in epithelial cells. Eur J Biochem 1998; 254: 81.
  • 22
    Ackermann L, Harvima IT. Mast cells of psoriatic and atopic dermatitis skin are positive for TNF-alpha and their degranulation is associated with expression of ICAM-1 in the epidermis. Arch Dermatol Res 1998; 290: 353.
  • 23
    Badertscher K, Bronnimann M, Karlen S, Braathen LR, Yawalkar N. Mast cell chymase is increased in chronic atopic dermatitis but not in psoriasis. Arch Dermatol Res 2005; 296: 503.
  • 24
    Ackermann L, Harvima IT, Pelkonen J, et al. Mast cells of psoriatic skin are strongly positive for interferon-gamma. Br J Dermatol 1999; 140: 624.
  • 25
    Jiang WY, Chattedee AD, Raychaudhuri SP, Raychaudhuri SK, Farber EM. Mast cell density and IL-8 expression in nonlesional and lesional psoriatic skin. Int J Dermatol 2001;40: 699.
  • 26
    Bowen AR, Hanks AN, Murphy KJ, Florell SR, Grossman D. Proliferation, apoptosis, and survivin expression in keratinocytic neoplasms and hyperplasias. Am J Dermatopathol 2004; 26: 177.
  • 27
    Walsh DS, Borke JL, Balagon MV. Psoriasis is characterized by altered epidermal expression of caspase 14, a novel regulator of keratinocyte terminal differentiation and barrier formation. J Dermatol Sci 2005; 37: 61.
  • 28
    Huckleberry D, Nunez G, Milligan C, et al. Bcl-2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks programmed cell death. Nature 1990; 22: 334.
  • 29
    Nakagawa K, Yamamura K, Maeda S, Ichihashi M. Bcl-2 expression in epidermal keratinocytic diseases. Cancer 1994; 74: 1720.
  • 30
    Wrone-Smith T, Johnson T, Nelson B, et al. Discordant expression of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 by keratinocytes in vitro and psoriatic keratinocytes in vivo. Am J Pathol 1995; 146: 1079.
  • 31
    Bianchi L, Faarace MG, Mini G, Piaentini M. Abnormal Bcl2 and ‘tissue’ transglutaminase expression in psoriatic skin. J Invest Dermatol 1994; 103: 829.
  • 32
    Takada Y, Singh S, Aggarwal BB. Identification of a p65 peptide that selectively inhibits NF-kappa B activation induced by various inflammatory stimuli and its role in down-regulation of NF-kappa B-mediated gene expression and up-regulation of apoptosis. J Biol Chem 2004; 279: 15096.
  • 33
    Theoharides T, Cochrane DE. Critical role of mast cells in inflammatory diseases and the effect of acute stress. J Neuroimmunol 2004; 146: 1.