A female newborn presented with a congenital urticarial rash that consisted of fluctuating well-demarcated pink or pale reddish macules or slightly raised papules and plaques. In addition, purulent cerebrospinal fluid was present in the absence of evidence of congenital infection. Skin biopsy revealed a sparse infiltrate throughout the entire dermis, including the eccrine adventitia. The infiltrate was composed mostly of neutrophils, but rarely lymphocytes and eosinophils could also be seen. No vasculitis was present. Because of the presenting attributes, a diagnosis of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) was considered and the neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disorder (NOMID) that represents the most severe expression of the CAPS clinical spectrum was favored. Diagnosis was confirmed by identification of a mutation in the cold-induced autoinflammatory syndrome-1 gene and by an observed response to treatment with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. Both the clinical and histopathological findings of the presented case may represent a distinct entity within the spectrum of aseptic neutrophilic dermatitis. We refer to this spectrum as neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis (NUD), which may serve as a cutaneous marker of autoinflammation. NUD with perieccrine involvement should prompt consideration of CAPS, especially NOMID, in the context of neonatal multisystem disease.
Kolivras A, Theunis A, Ferster A, Lipsker D, Sass U, Dussart A, André J. Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome: an autoinflammatory disease manifested as neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis with additional perieccrine involvement.