This study assessed the awareness, knowledge and practice of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) amongst dentists working in the public sector in Kuwait. Of the 150 randomly selected dentists from all five health districts in Kuwait who had originally been approached, 120 participated by completing a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire (80% response rate). Whereas 60.9% of the group stated that they practice EBD most of the time, fewer (40.8%) had a reasonable understanding of EBD based upon tested knowledge scores of EBD-related topics. Clinical decisions appeared to be mostly based on the clinician’s own judgment (73.3%) rather than on evidence-based sources such as PubMed (28.3%) or the Cochrane Library (6.7%). A number of within-group differences were noted, with women (P < 0.05), those working in a particular district (P < 0.05), those with <10 years’ experience (P = 0.05), those whose first dental qualification had been obtained in Kuwait (P < 0.05), and those who had had any EBD training (P < 0.05) showing greater knowledge of EBD. Training in EBD was felt necessary by a majority of the group, and this may be facilitated if dental centres have access to evidence-based sources to remove some of the possible barriers to implementation of EBD.