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Patterns of rodent seed predation in extensive cereal croplands of central Spain were investigated by measuring rodent predation rates on artificial seed patches, together with seed availability, rodent abundance and habitat physiognomy Sampling was designed to cope with the spatial and temporal variability of factors potentially affecting rodent activity (natural and man-made habitat features, season and moonlight) Rodent predation was unpredictably distributed in summer In winter, rodents foraged on average in the patches least used by man. moonlight, however, did alter this pattern, so that rodent predation was closely associated with shrubs in the bright nights and evenly distributed in the dark ones I conclude that the need of stable underground refuges and predation risk in the winter period seemed to be the mam factors constraining rodent foraging activity in the man-made ecosystem studied