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We addressed how species number and pair density in guilds of co-existing species is related to habitat structure, and to the abundance and diversity of food resources using the assemblage of seven species of dabbling ducks (genus Anas) breeding in 60 lakes distributed over six regions in temperate north Europe

Partial correlation and multiple regression revealed that species richness was best predicted by habitat structural diversity as indexed by a principal component analysis based on 18 vegetation and lake characteristics, and by the abundance of aquatic and emergent prey We found no effect of lake size or prey size diversity on species richness Pair density was correlated with the percentage of shoreline with horsetails (Equisetum), by habitat structural diversity and by the abundance of emergent invertebrate prey Neither prey size diversity nor abundance of aquatic prey correlated with pair density Species richness and pair density in North European duck guilds vary both with habitat structure and prey availability