Patterns and timing of diversification in a tropical montane butterfly genus, Lymanopoda (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)


  • Kayce L. Casner,

  • Tomasz W. Pyrcz

K. L. Casner (, Dept of Evolution and Ecology and Center for Population Biology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. – T. W. Pyrcz, Zoological Museum, Jagiellonian Univ., 30–060 Krakow, Poland.


Species distributions are a product of contemporary and historical forces. Using phylogenetic and geographic data, we explore the timing of and barriers to the diversification of the Andean butterfly genus Lymanopoda (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). Clade and species level diversification is coincident with Andean orogeny and Pleistocene glaciation cycles. Lymanopoda has primarily diversified within elevational bands, radiating horizontally throughout the Andes with occasional speciation across elevational boundaries, often associated with ecotones. Narrow elevational ranges and infrequent speciation into adjacent elevational strata suggest that expansion across elevational gradients is relatively difficult. These results are similar to those found in studies of other Andean taxa.