The analysis of contact zones between lineages that were previously isolated in allopatry can lead to important insights on evolutionary processes such as selection and adaptation. In this paper we conducted a comparative demographic study of two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages of the lizard Lacerta vivipara in the western Pyrénées to provide detail on the dynamics of their contact zone. By surveying haplogroup frequency across the contact area, we revealed the existence of a stable and very narrow contact zone between two parapatric lineages, which we infer to demonstrate a role for selection in the maintenance of this contact zone. We suggest these two lineages evolved in allopatry after retreating to different refugia during the Pleistocene glaciations, and subsequently came into secondary contact after the last glacial maximum. Although haplogroup frequencies were stable over time, we found significant age and environment (temperature) dependent survival differences between mtDNA haplogroups in one contact population sampled yearly from 2002 to 2009. Therefore, temperature-induced demographic differences between the two mtDNA lineages may be responsible for the stability of this narrow contact zone. This is one of the first demographic studies conducted under natural conditions indicating the possibility of selection on mtDNA.