SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Eikelboom JW, Quinlan DJ, Douketis JD. Extended-duration prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee replacement: a meta-analysis of the randomised trials. Lancet 2001;358:915.
  • 2
    Bergqvist D, Agnelli G, Cohen AT, Eldor A, Nilsson PE, Le Moigne-Amrani A, Dietrich-Neto F, et al. ; ENOXACAN II Investigators. Duration of prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism with enoxaparin after surgery for cancer. N Engl J Med 2002;346:97580.
  • 3
    Agnelli G, Prandoni P, Santamaria MG, et al. ; Warfarin Optimal Duration Italian Trial Investigators. Three months versus one year of oral anticoagulant therapy for idiopathic deep venous thrombosis. Warfarin Optimal Duration Italian Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1659.
  • 4
    Kearon C, Gent M, Hirsh J, et al. A comparison of three months of anticoagulation with extended anticoagulation for a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism [erratum in: N Engl J Med. 1999;341:298]. N Engl J Med 1999;340:9017.
  • 5
    Miyasaka Y, Barnes ME, Gersh BJ, et al. Secular trends in incidence of atrial fibrillation in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1980 to 2000, and implications on the projections for future prevalence [erratum in: Circulation. 2006;114:e498]. Circulation 2006;114:11925.
  • 6
    Wolf PA, Abbott RD, Kannel WB. Atrial fibrillation: a major contributor to stroke in the elderly; the Framingham Study. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:15614.
  • 7
    Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation study: final results. Circulation 1991;84:52739.
  • 8
    Atrial Fibrillation Investigators: Atrial Fibrillation, Aspirin, Anticoagulation Study; Boston Area Anticoagulation Trial for Atrial Fibrillation Study; Canadian Atrial Fibrillation Anticoagulation Study; Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Study; Veterans Affairs Stroke Prevention in Nonrheumatic Atrial Fibrillation Study. Risk factors for stroke and efficacy of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation: analysis of pooled data from five randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:144957.
  • 9
    Connolly S, Pogue J, Hart R, et al. ; ACTIVE Writing Group of the ACTIVE Investigators. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in the Atrial fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial with Irbesartan for prevention of Vascular Events (ACTIVE W): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006;367:190312.
  • 10
    Niska R, Han B. Anticoagulation for patients with atrial fibrillation in ambulatory care settings. J Am Board Fam Med 2009;22:299306.
  • 11
    Friberg L, Hammar N, Ringh M, Pettersson H, Rosenqvist M. Stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation: who gets it and who does not? Report from the Stockholm Cohort-study on Atrial Fibrillation (SCAF-study) Eur Heart J 2006;27:195464.
  • 12
    Fuster V, Rydén LE, Cannom DS, et al. ; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines; European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines; European Heart Rhythm Association; Heart Rhythm Society ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2001 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation): developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation 2006;11:e257354.
  • 13
    Piccini JP, Hernandez AF, Zhao X, et al. Get With The Guidelines Steering Committee and Hospitals. Quality of care for atrial fibrillation among patients hospitalized for heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;54:12809.
  • 14
    Waldo AL, Becker RC, Tapson VF, Colgan KJ. NABOR Steering Committee. Hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation and a high risk of stroke are not being provided with adequate anticoagulation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:172936.
  • 15
    Singer DE, Chang Y, Fang MC, et al. The net clinical benefit of warfarin anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation. Ann Intern Med 2009;151:297305.
  • 16
    Monette J, Gurwitz JH, Rochon PA, Avorn J. Physician attitudes concerning warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: results of a survey of long-term care practitioners. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:10605.
  • 17
    Baker WL, Cios DA, Sander SD, Coleman CI. Meta-analysis to assess the quality of warfarin control in atrial fibrillation patients in the United States. J Manag Care Pharm 2009;15:24452.
  • 18
    Weitz JI. New oral anticoagulants in development. Thromb Haemost 2010;103:6270.

References

  • 1
    Geerts WH, Bergqvist D, Pineo GF, et al. Prevention of venous thromboembolism: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008;133(Suppl. 6):381453.
  • 2
    White RH, Romano PS, Zhou H, Rodrigo J, Bargar W. Incidence and time course of thromboembolic outcomes following total hip or knee arthroplasty. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:152531.
  • 3
    Eriksson BI, Lassen MR; for the Pentasaccharide in Hip-Fracture Surgery Plus (PENTHIFRA Plus) Investigators. Duration of prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism with fondaparinux after hip fracture surgery: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163:133742.
  • 4
    Bergqvist D, Benoni G, Björgell O, et al. Low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin) as prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after total hip replacement. N Engl J Med 1996;335:696700.
  • 5
    Planes A, Vochelle N, Darmon JY, Fagola M, Bellaud M, Huet Y. Risk of deep-venous thrombosis after hospital discharge in patients having undergone total hip replacement: double-blind randomised comparison of enoxaparin versus placebo. Lancet 1996;348:2248.
  • 6
    Dahl OE, Andreassen G, Aspelin T, et al. Prolonged thromboprophylaxis following total hip replacement surgery – results of a double-blind, prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study with dalteparin (Fragmin). Thromb Haemost 1997;77:2631.
  • 7
    Hull RD, Pineo GF, Francis C, et al. Low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis using dalteparin extended out-of-hospital vs in-hospital warfarin/out-of-hospital placebo in hip arthroplasty patients: a doubleblind, randomized comparison. North American Fragmin Trial Investigators. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:220815.
  • 8
    Heit JA, Elliott CG, Trowbridge AA, Morrey BF, Gent M, Hirsh J; Ardeparin Arthroplasty Study Group. Ardeparin sodium for extended out-of-hospital prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee replacement. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2000;132:85361.
  • 9
    Comp PC, Spiro TE, Friedman RJ, et al. ; Enoxaparin Clinical Trial Group. Prolonged enoxaparin therapy to prevent venous thromboembolism after primary hip or knee replacement. Enoxaparin Clinical Trial Group. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2001;83-A:33645.
  • 10
    Hull RD, Pineo GF, Stein PD, et al. Extended out-of-hospital low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis against deep venous thrombosis in patients after elective hip arthroplasty: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:85869.
  • 11
    Eikelboom JW, Quinlan DJ, Douketis JD. Extended-duration prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee replacement: a meta-analysis of the randomised trials. Lancet 2001;358:915.
  • 12
    Johanson NA, Lachiewicz PF, Lieberman JR, et al. Prevention of symptomatic pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2009;17:18396.
  • 13
    Venous thromboembolism: the prevention of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery and other high-risk surgical procedures. NICE guideline. Available at: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/VTEConsultationNICEVersion0906.pdf. Accessed February 12, 2010.
  • 14
    Eriksson BI, Borris LC, Friedman RJ, et al. Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip arthroplasty. N Engl J Med 2008;358:276575.
  • 15
    Kakkar AK, Brenner B, Dahl OE, et al. Extended duration rivaroxaban versus short-term enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2008;372:319.
  • 16
    Lassen MR, Ageno W, Borris LC, et al. Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty. N Engl J Med 2008;358:277686.
  • 17
    Turpie AG, Lassen MR, Davidson BL, et al. Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty (RECORD4): a randomised trial. Lancet 2009;373:167380.
  • 18
    Eriksson BI, Dahl OE, Rosencher N, et al. ; RE-NOVATE Study Group. Dabigatran etexilate versus enoxaparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip replacement: a randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial. Lancet 2007;370:94956.
  • 19
    Sandler DA, Martin JF. Autopsy proven pulmonary embolism in hospital patients: are we detecting enough deep vein thrombosis? J R Soc Med 1989;82:2035.
  • 20
    Dentali F, Douketis JD, Gianni M, Lim W, Crowther MA. Meta-analysis: anticoagulant prophylaxis to prevent symptomatic venous thromboembolism in hospitalized medical patients. Ann Intern Med 2007;146:27888.
  • 21
    Samama MM, Cohen AT, Darmon JY, et al. A comparison of enoxaparin with placebo for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients. Prophylaxis in Medical Patients with Enoxaparin Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999;341:793800.
  • 22
    Leizorovicz A, Cohen AT, Turpie AG, Olsson CG, Vaitkus PT, Goldhaber SZ; PREVENT Medical Thromboprophylaxis Study Group. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of dalteparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients. Circulation 2004;110:8749.
  • 23
    Cohen AT, Davidson BL, Gallus AS, Lassen MR, Prins MH, Tomkowski W, Turpie AG, Egberts JF, Lensing AW; ARTEMIS Investigators. Efficacy and safety of fondaparinux for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in older acute medical patients: randomised placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2006;332:3259.
  • 24
    Hull RD, Schellong SM, Tapson VF, et al. Extended-duration thromboprophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients with recent reduced mobility: methodology for the EXCLAIM study. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2006;22:318.
  • 25
    Hull RD, Schellong SM, Tapson VF, et al. Extended-duration venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients with recent reduced mobility: the exclaim study. J Thromb Haemost 2007;5(Suppl. 2):O-S-001.
  • 26
    Yusen RD, Hull RD, Schellong SM, et al. The effects of the degree of mobility reduction and prespecified risk factors on venous thromboembolism rates in acutely ill medical patients in the EXCLAIM study. Blood 2007;110(ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts):Abstract 1862.
  • 27
    Venous Thromboembolic Event (VTE) Prophylaxis in Medically Ill Patients (MAGELLAN). Available at: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00571649?term=rivaroxaban&rank=15. Accessed February 11, 2010.
  • 28
    Lassen RL, Gallus AS, Pineo GF, et al. ; ADVANCE–1 Investigators. Randomized double-blind comparison of apixaban with enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement: the ADVANCE–1 trial [abstract]. 50th American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting and Exposition. December 6–9, 2008. San Francisco, California. Abstract 31. Available at: http://ash.confex.com/ash/2008/webprogram/Paper4437.html. Accessed June 18, 2009.
  • 29
    Study of Apixaban for the Prevention of Thrombosis-related Events in Patients With Acute Medical Illness (ADOPT). Available at: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00457002?term=apixaban&rank=4. Accessed February 11, 2010.
  • 30
    Warwick D, Friedman RJ, Agnelli G, et al. Insufficient duration of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after total hip or knee replacement when compared with the time course of thromboembolic events: findings from the Global Orthopaedic Registry. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2007;89:799807.
  • 31
    Tapson VF, Decousus H, Pini M, et al. ; IMPROVE Investigators. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in acutely ill hospitalized medical patients: findings from the International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism. Chest 2007;132:93645.
  • 32
    Bergmann JF, Cohen AT, Tapson VF, et al. ; for the ENDORSE Investigators. Venous thromboembolism risk and prophylaxis in hospitalised medically ill patients. The ENDORSE Global Survey. Thromb Haemost 2010;103:73648.

References

  • 1
    McLean J. The discovery of heparin. Circulation 1959;19:758.
  • 2
    Murray D, Jaques L, Perrett T, Best C. Heparin and thrombosis of veins following injury. Surgery 1937;2:16385.
  • 3
    Crafoord C. Preliminary report on post-operative treatment with heparin as a preventive of thrombosis. Act Chir Scand 1937;79:40726.
  • 4
    Barritt DW, Jordan SC. Anticoagulant drugs in the treatment of pulmonary embolism–a controlled trial. Lancet 1960;1:130912.
  • 5
    Kearon C, Kahn SR, Agnelli G, Goldhaber S, Raskob GE, Comerota AJ. Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition) [erratum in Chest 2008;134:892]. Chest 2008;133(Suppl. 6):454545.
  • 6
    Hommes DW, Bura A, Mazzolai L, Büller HR, Ten Cate JW. Subcutaneous heparin compared with continuous intravenous heparin administration in the initial treatment of deep vein thrombosis. A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:27984.
  • 7
    Young E, Wells P, Holloway S, Weitz J, Hirsh J. Ex-vivo and in-vitro evidence that low molecular weight heparins exhibit less binding to plasma proteins than unfractionated heparin. Thromb Haemost 1994;71:3004.
  • 8
    Hirsh J. Heparin. N Engl J Med 1991;324:156574.
  • 9
    Warkentin TE, Greinacher A, Koster A, Lincoff AM Treatment and prevention of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008;133(suppl 6);34080.
  • 10
    Kearon C, Kahn SR, Agnelli G, Goldhaber S, Raskob GE, Comerota AJ. Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition) [erratum in Chest 2008;134:892]. Chest 2008;133(Suppl. 6):454545.
  • 11
    Van Dongen CJ, Van Den Belt AG, Prins MH, Lensing AW. Fixed dose subcutaneous low molecular weight heparins versus adjusted dose unfractionated heparin for venous thromboembolism. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(4):CD001100.
  • 12
    Couturaud F, Julian JA, Kearon C. Low molecular weight heparin administered once versus twice daily in patients with venous thromboembolism: a meta-analysis. Thromb Haemost 2001;86:9804.
  • 13
    Boccalon H, Elias A, Chalé JJ, Cadène A, Gabriel S. Clinical outcome and cost of hospital vs home treatment of proximal deep vein thrombosis with a low-molecular-weight heparin: the Vascular Midi-Pyrenees study. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:176973.
  • 14
    De Lissovoy G, Yusen RD, Spiro TE, Krupski WC, Champion AH, Sorensen SV. Cost for inpatient care of venous thrombosis: a trial of enoxaparin vs standard heparin. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:31605.
  • 15
    Groce JB III. Patient outcomes and cost analysis associated with an outpatient deep venous thrombosis treatment program. Pharmacotherapy 1998;18 (Suppl. 6, pt 3):17580.
  • 16
    O’Brien B, Levine M, Willan A, et al. Economic evaluation of outpatient treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin for proximal vein thrombosis. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2298304.
  • 17
    Spyropoulos AC, Hurley JS, Ciesla GN, De Lissovoy G. Management of acute proximal deep vein thrombosis: pharmacoeconomic evaluation of outpatient treatment with enoxaparin vs inpatient treatment with unfractionated heparin. Chest 2002;122:10814.
  • 18
    Petitou M, Duchaussoy P, Herbert JM, et al. The synthetic pentasaccharide fondaparinux: first in the class of antithrombotic agents that selectively inhibit coagulation factor Xa. Semin Thromb Hemost 2002;28:393402.
  • 19
    Büller HR, Davidson BL, Decousus H, et al. ; Matisse Investigators. Fondaparinux or enoxaparin for the initial treatment of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis: a randomised trial. Ann Intern Med 2004;140:86773.
  • 20
    Büller HR, Davidson BL, Decousus H, et al. ; Matisse Investigators. Subcutaneous fondaparinux versus intravenous unfractionated heparin in the initial treatment of pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1695702.
  • 21
    Büller HR, and the MATISSE Investigators. Initial outpatient treatment of venous thromboembolism with fondaparinux (Arixtra®): The MATISSE Trials [ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts]. Blood 2004;104(11, pt 1):202a. Abstract 705.
  • 22
    van Gogh Investigators, Buller HR, Cohen AT, Davidson B, et al. Idraparinux versus standard therapy for venous thromboembolic disease. N Engl J Med 2007;357:1094104.
  • 23
    Ansell J, Hirsh J, Hylek E, Jacobson A, Crowther M, Palareti G. Pharmacology and management of the vitamin K antagonists: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008;133(Suppl. 6):16098.
  • 24
    Hirsh J, Guyatt G, Albers GW, Harrington R, Schünemann HJ. Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008; 133(Suppl. 6):1102.
  • 25
    Stangier J, Eriksson BI, Dahl OE, et al. Pharmacokinetic profile of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate in healthy volunteers and patients undergoing total hip replacement. J Clin Pharmacol 2005;45:55563.
  • 26
    Stangier J, Rathgen K, Stahle H, Gansser D, Roth W. The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerability of dabigatran etexilate, a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor, in healthy male subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007;64:292303.
  • 27
    Blech S, Ebner T, Ludwig-Schwellinger E, Stangier J, Roth W. The metabolism and disposition of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran, in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2008;36:38699.
  • 28
    Kubitza D, Becka M, Voith B, Zuehlsdorf M, Wensing G. Safety, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of single doses of BAY 59–7939, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005;78:41221.
  • 29
    Kubitza D, Becka M, Zuehlsdorf M, Mueck W. Effect of food, an antacid, and the H2 antagonist ranitidine on the absorption of BAY 59-7939 (rivaroxaban), an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor, in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 2006;46:54958.
  • 30
    Weinz C, Schwarz T, Kubitza D, Mueck W, Lang D. Metabolism and excretion of rivaroxaban, an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor, in rats, dogs and humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2009;37:105664.
  • 31
    Kubitza D, Becka M, Mueck W, Zuehlsdorf M Co-administration of rivaroxaban – a novel, oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor – and clopidogrel in healthy subjects. Eur Heart J 2007;28(Suppl. 1):189. Abstract P1272.
  • 32
    Kubitza D, Becka M, Zuehlsdorf M. No interaction between the novel, oral direct Factor Xa inhibitor BAY 59-7939 and digoxin. J Clin Pharmacol 2006;46:702. Abstract 11.
  • 33
    Kubitza D, Becka M, Mueck W, Zuehlsdorf M. Rivaroxaban (BAY 59-7939) – an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor – has no clinically relevant interaction with naproxen. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007;63:46976.
  • 34
    Kubitza D, Becka M, Mueck W, Zuehlsdorf M. The effect of extreme age, and gender, on the pharmacology and tolerability of rivaroxaban – an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor. Blood 2006;108. Abstract 905.
  • 35
    Kubitza D, Becka M, Zuehlsdorf M, Mueck W. Body weight has limited influence on the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, or pharmacodynamics of rivaroxaban (BAY 59-7939) in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 2007;47:21826.
  • 36
    Veyrat-Follet C, Vivier N, Trellu M, Dubruc C, Sanderink GJ. The pharmacokinetics of idraparinux, a long-acting indirect factor Xa inhibitor: population pharmacokinetic analysis from Phase III clinical trials. J Thromb Haemost 2009;7:55965.
  • 37
    Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, et al. ; RE–LY Steering Committee and Investigators. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009;361:113951.
  • 38
    Oral direct factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban in patients with acute symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis without symptomatic pulmonary embolism: Einstein-DVT Evaluation. Available at: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00440193. Accessed January 26, 2010.
  • 39
    Oral direct factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism with or without symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis: Einstein–PE Evaluation. Available at: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00439777. Accessed January 26, 2010.
  • 40
    Ost D, Tepper J, Mihara H, et al. Duration of anticoagulation following venous thromboembolism: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2005;294:70615.
  • 41
    Douketis JD, Gu CS, Schulman S, Ghirarduzzi A, Pengo V, Prandoni P. The risk for fatal pulmonary embolism after discontinuing anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism. Ann Intern Med 2007;147:76674.
  • 42
    Palareti G, Leali N, Coccheri S, et al. Bleeding complications of oral anticoagulant treatment: an inception-cohort, prospective collaborative study (ISCOAT). Italian Study on Complications of Oral Anticoagulant Therapy. Lancet 1996;348:4238.
  • 43
    Douketis JD, Arneklev K, Goldhaber SZ, Spandorfer J, Halperin F, Horrow J. Comparison of bleeding in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation treated with ximelagatran or warfarin: assessment of incidence, case-fatality rate, time course and sites of bleeding, and risk factors for bleeding. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:8539.
  • 44
    Linkins LA, Choi PT, Douketis JD. Clinical impact of bleeding in patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2003;139:893900.
  • 45
    Kimmel SE, Chen Z, Price M, et al. The influence of patient adherence on anticoagulation control with warfarin: results from the International Normalized Ratio Adherence and Genetics (IN–RANGE) Study. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:22935.
  • 46
    van Gogh Investigators, Buller HR, Cohen AT, Davidson B, et al. Extended prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism with idraparinux. N Engl J Med 2007;357:110512.
  • 47
    Paty I, Trellu M, Destors JM, Cortez P, Boëlle E, Sanderink G. Reversibility of the anti-FXa activity of idrabiotaparinux (biotinylated idraparinux) by intravenous avidin infusion. J Thromb Haemost 2010;8:7229.
  • 48
    Büller HR, Destors JM, Gallus AS, Prins MH, Raskob GE. Idrabiotaparinux, a biotinylated long-acting anticoagulant, in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (EQUINOX Study): safety, efficacy, and reversibility by avidin. Available at http://ash.confex.com/ash/2008/webprogram/Paper4671.html. Accessed January 26, 2010.
  • 49
    Kongressbericht – ESC-Kongress August 2009, Barcelona. Zeitschrift für Gefäßmedizin. 2009;6(4),32. Available at http://www.kup.at/kup/pdf/8524.pdf. Accessed January 26, 2010.

References

  • 1
    Becker RC, Meade TW, Berger PB, et al. The primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008;133(Suppl. 6):776S814S.
  • 2
    Anderson JL, Adams CD, Antman EM, et al. ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina/non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2002 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non–ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction): developed in collaboration with the American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons [erratum in: J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;51:974]. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;50:e1157.
  • 3
    Fang MC, Stafford RS, Ruskin JN, Singer DE. National trends in antiarrhythmic and antithrombotic medication use in atrial fibrillation. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:5560.
  • 4
    Monette J, Gurwitz JH, Rochon PA, Avorn J. Physician attitudes concerning warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: results of a survey of long-term care practitioners. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:10605.
  • 5
    Canadian Cardiovascular Society; American Academy of Family Physicians; American College of Cardiology; American Heart Association, Antman EM, Hand M, Armstrong PW, et al. 2007 focused update of the ACC/AHA 2004 guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;51:21047.
  • 6
    Wiviott SD, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, et al. ; TRITON–TIMI 38 Investigators. Prasugrel versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2007;357:200115.
  • 7
    Van Belle E, Lablanche JM, Bauters C, Renaud N, McFadden EP, Bertrand ME. Coronary angioscopic findings in the infarct-related vessel within 1 month of acute myocardial infarction: natural history and the effect of thrombolysis. Circulation 1998;97:2633.
  • 8
    Porter A, Kandalker H, Iakobishvili Z, et al. Left ventricular mural thrombus after anterior ST-segment-elevation acute myocardial infarction in the era of aggressive reperfusion therapy--still a frequent complication. Coron Artery Dis 2005;16:2759.
  • 9
    Merlini PA, Bauer KA, Oltrona L, et al. Persistent activation of coagulation mechanism in unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Circulation 1994;90:618.
  • 10
    Rothberg MB, Celestin C, Fiore LD, Lawler E, Cook JR. Warfarin plus aspirin after myocardial infarction or the acute coronary syndrome: meta-analysis with estimates of risk and benefit. Ann Int Med 2005;143:24150.
  • 11
    Van Es RF, Jonker JJ, Verheugt FW, Deckers JW, Grobbee DE; Antithrombotics in the Secondary Prevention of Events in Coronary Thrombosis–2 (ASPECT–2) Research Group. Aspirin and coumadin after acute coronary syndromes (the ASPECT–2 study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:10913.
  • 12
    The Organization to Assess Strategies for Ischemic Syndromes (OASIS) Investigators. Effects of long-term, moderate-intensity oral anticoagulation in addition to aspirin in unstable angina. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:47584.
  • 13
    Wallentin L, Wilcox RG, Weaver WD, et al. ; ESTEEM Investigators. Oral ximelagatran for secondary prophylaxis after myocardial infarction: the ESTEEM randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 362:78997.
  • 14
    Francis CW. New issues in oral anticoagulants. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2008:25965.
  • 15
    Alexander JH, Becker RC, Bhatt DL, et al. ; APPRAISE Steering Committee and Investigators. Apixaban, an oral, direct, selective factor Xa inhibitor, in combination with antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome: results of the Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic and Safety Events (APPRAISE) trial. Circulation 2009; 119:287785
  • 16
    Schulman S, Kearon C; Subcommittee on Control of Anticoagulation of the Scientific and Standardization Committee of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Definition of major bleeding in clinical investigations of antihemostatic medicinal products in non-surgical patients. J Thromb Haemost 2005;3:6924.
  • 17
    Phase III Acute Coronary Syndrome (APPRAISE–2). http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00831441?term=apixaban&rank=16. Accessed October 14, 2009.
  • 18
    Mega JL, Braunwald E, Mohanavelu S, et al. ; ATLAS ACS–TIMI 46 study group. Rivaroxaban versus placebo in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ATLAS ACS–TIMI 46): a randomised, double-blind, phase II trial. Lancet 2009;374:2938.
  • 19
    Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Study: Final results. Circulation 1991;84:52739.
  • 20
    Risk factors for stroke and efficacy of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation: analysis of pooled data from five randomized controlled trials [erratum in Arch Intern Med 1994;154:2254]. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:144957.
  • 21
    ACTIVE Writing Group of the ACTIVE Investigators, Connolly S, Pogue J, Hart R, et al. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in the Atrial fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial with Irbesartan for prevention of Vascular Events (ACTIVE W): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006;36:190312.
  • 22
    Miyasaka Y, Barnes ME, Gersh BJ, et al. Secular trends in incidence of atrial fibrillation in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1980 to 2000, and implications on the projections for future prevalence. Circulation 2006;114:11925.
  • 23
    Fihn SD, McDonell M, Martin D, et al. Risk factors for complications of chronic anticoagulation: a multicenter study. Ann Intern Med 1993;118:51120.
  • 24
    Gitter MJ, Jaeger TM, Petterson TM, Gersh BJ, Silverstein MD. Bleeding and thromboembolism during anticoagulant therapy: a population-based study in Rochester, Minnesota. Mayo Clin Proc 1995;70:72533.
  • 25
    Fihn SD, Callahan CM, Martin DC, et al. The risk for and severity of bleeding complications in elderly patients treated with warfarin. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:9709.
  • 26
    Kimmel SE, Chen Z, Price M, et al. The influence of patient adherence on anticoagulation control with warfarin: results from the International Normalized Ratio Adherence and Genetics (IN–RANGE) Study. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:22935.
  • 27
    Parker CS, Chen Z, Price M, et al. Adherence to warfarin assessed by electronic pill caps, clinician assessment, and patient reports: results from the IN–RANGE study. J Gen Intern Med 2007;22:12549.
  • 28
    Samsa GP, Matchar DB, Goldstein LB, et al. Quality of anticoagulation management among patients with atrial fibrillation: results of a review of medical records from 2 communities. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:96773.
  • 29
    International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium; Klein TE, Altman RB, Eriksson N, et al. Estimation of the warfarin dose with clinical and pharmacogenetic data. N Engl J Med 2009;360:75364.
  • 30
    Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, et al. ; RE–LY Steering Committee and Investigators. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009;361:113951.
  • 31
    Orford JL, Fasseas P, Melby S, et al. Safety and efficacy of aspirin, clopidogrel, and warfarin after coronary stent placement in patients with an indication for anticoagulation. Am Heart J 2004;147:4637.
  • 32
    Karjalainen PP, Porela P, Ylitalo A, et al. Safety and efficacy of combined antiplatelet-warfarin therapy after coronary stenting. Eur Heart J 2007;28:72632.
  • 33
    Nguyen MC, Lim YL, Walton A, et al. ; GRACE Investigators. Combining warfarin and antiplatelet therapy after coronary stenting in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events: is it safe and effective to use just one antiplatelet agent? Eur Heart J 2007;28:171722.