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Keywords:

  • amyloidosis;
  • multiple myeloma;
  • high-dose melphalan;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • stem cell transplant

Abstract

Background

Cardiac complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are emerging as a significant concern given the increasing utilization of HSCT for a variety of hematologic malignancies.

Methods

We utilized an existing database to determine the frequency of cardiac dysfunction (CD), namely a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction, following conditioning with high-dose melphalan (HDM) and autologous HSCT for multiple myeloma (MM) and systemic amyloidosis (AL). We then performed a case–control study to examine variables associated with increased risk of CD in this population.

Results

In MM patients undergoing HSCT, the rate of CD was 1.6% (17/1050, 95% CI: [0.9, 2.6]). None of the examined pre-HSCT variables or HDM dose were significantly associated with development of CD in this population. In patients with AL, the rate of CD was 5.6% (24/426, 95% CI: [3.6, 8.3]). On univariate analysis, decision to administer an HDM dose <200 mg/m2 [odds ratio (OR): 4.59 (1.27–16.57) P = 0.02], pretransplant left ventricular ejection fraction <60% [OR: 17.78 (2.29–138.33) P = 0.006], and documented amyloid involvement of ≥3 organs [OR: 4.0 (1.03–15.6) P = 0.046] were associated with the development of CD in the AL population. No other examined peri-transplant factors were associated with development of CD.

Conclusion

To our knowledge, this is the first series to report a significant rate of CD following HDM conditioning and autologous HSCT in patients with AL.