• 1
    Aruffo A, Stamenkovic I, Melnick M, Underhill C B, Seed B. CD44 is the principal cell surface receptor for hyaluronate. Cell 1990: 61: 13031313.
  • 2
    Stern R. Devising a pathway for hyaluronan catabolism: are we there yet? Glycobiology 2003: 13: 105R115R.
  • 3
    Sampson P M, Rochester C L, Freundlich B, Elias J A. Cytokine regulation of human lung fibroblast hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) production. Evidence for cytokine-regulated hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) degradation and human lung fibroblast-derived hyaluronidase. J Clin Invest 1992: 90: 14921503.
  • 4
    Liu D, Pearlman E, Diaconu E et al. Expression of hyaluronidase by tumor cells induces angiogenesis in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996: 93: 78327837.
  • 5
    McKee C M, Penno M B, Cowman M et al. Hyaluronan (HA) fragments induce chemokine gene expression in alveolar macrophages. The role of HA size and CD44. J Clin Invest 1996: 98: 24032413.
  • 6
    Sattar A, Rooney P, Kumar S et al. Application of angiogenic oligosaccharides of hyaluronan increases blood vessel numbers in rat skin. J Invest Dermatol 1994: 103: 576579.
  • 7
    Taylor K R, Trowbridge J M, Rudisill J A, Termeer C C, Simon J C, Gallo R L. Hyaluronan fragments stimulate endothelial recognition of injury through TLR4. J Biol Chem 2004: 279: 1707917084.
  • 8
    Fieber C, Baumann P, Vallon R et al. Hyaluronan-oligosaccharide-induced transcription of metalloproteases. J Cell Sci 2004: 117: 359367.
  • 9
    Stamenkovic I. Matrix metalloproteinases in tumor invasion and metastasis. Semin Cancer Biol 2000: 10: 415433.
  • 10
    Takeuchi O, Akira S. Toll-like receptors; their physiological role and signal transduction system. Int Immunopharmacol 2001: 1: 625635.
  • 11
    Termeer C, Benedix F, Sleeman J et al. Oligosaccharides of hyaluronan activate dendritic cells via toll-like receptor 4. J Exp Med 2002: 195: 99111.
  • 12
    Lockshin A, Giovanella B C, De Ipolyi P D et al. Exceptional lethality for nude mice of cells derived from a primary human melanoma. Cancer Res 1985: 45: 345350.
  • 13
    Termeer C C, Hennies J, Voith U et al. Oligosaccharides of hyaluronan are potent activators of dendritic cells. J Immunol 2000: 165: 18631870.
  • 14
    Calabro A, Benavides M, Tammi M, Hascall V C, Midura R J. Microanalysis of enzyme digests of hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). Glycobiology 2000: 10: 273281.
  • 15
    Pfaffl M W, Horgan G W, Dempfle L. Relative expression software tool (REST) for group-wise comparison and statistical analysis of relative expression results in real-time PCR. Nucleic Acids Res 2002: 30: e36.
  • 16
    Qian H, Sheetz M P, Elson E L. Single particle tracking. Analysis of diffusion and flow in two-dimensional systems. Biophys J 1991: 60: 910921.
  • 17
    Weih F, Carrasco D, Bravo R. Constitutive and inducible Rel/NF-kappa B activities in mouse thymus and spleen. Oncogene 1994: 9: 32893297.
  • 18
    Singh R K, Varney M L. IL-8 expression in malignant melanoma: implications in growth and metastasis. Histol Histopathol 2000: 15: 843849.
  • 19
    Gebhardt C A, Averbeck M, Viertel A et al. UVB irradiation enhances melanoma cell motility via induction of autocrine IL-8 secretion. Exp Derm 2007: 16: 636643.
  • 20
    Noble P W, McKee C M, Cowman M, Shin H S. Hyaluronan fragments activate an NF-kappa B/I-kappa B alpha autoregulatory loop in murine macrophages. J Exp Med 1996: 183: 23732378.
  • 21
    Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway C A Jr. A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity. Nature 1997: 388: 394397.
  • 22
    Kim H, Koh G. Lipopolysaccharide activates matrix metalloproteinase-2 in endothelial cells through an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000: 269: 401405.
  • 23
    Mascarenhas M M, Day R M, Ochoa C D et al. Low molecular weight hyaluronan from stretched lung enhances interleukin-8 expression. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2004: 30: 5160.
  • 24
    Koch A E, Polverini P J, Kunkel S L et al. Interleukin-8 as a macrophage-derived mediator of angiogenesis. Science 1992: 258: 17981801.
  • 25
    Xie K. Interleukin-8 and human cancer biology. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2001: 12: 375391.
  • 26
    Bar-Eli M. Role of interleukin-8 in tumor growth and metastasis of human melanoma. Pathobiology 1999: 67: 1218.
  • 27
    Huang S, Mills L, Mian B et al. Fully humanized neutralizing antibodies to interleukin-8 (ABX-IL8) inhibit angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis of human melanoma. Am J Pathol 2002: 161: 125134.
  • 28
    Chambers A F, Groom A C, MacDonald I C. Dissemination and growth of cancer cells in metastatic sites. Nat Rev Cancer 2002: 2: 563572.
  • 29
    Kopfstein L, Christofori G. Metastasis: cell-autonomous mechanisms versus contributions by the tumor microenvironment. Cell Mol Life Sci 2006: 63: 449468.
  • 30
    Itoh T, Tanioka M, Yoshida H, Yoshioka T, Nishimoto H, Itohara S. Reduced angiogenesis and tumor progression in gelatinase A-deficient mice. Cancer Res 1998: 58: 10481051.
  • 31
    Luca M, Huang S, Gershenwald J E, Singh RK, Reich R, Bar-Eli M. Expression of interleukin-8 by human melanoma cells up-regulates MMP-2 activity and increases tumor growth and metastasis. Am J Pathol 1997: 151: 11051113.
  • 32
    Yoshizaki T, Sato H, Furukawa M. Recent advances in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 activation: from basic research to clinical implication (Review). Oncol Rep 2002: 9: 607611.
  • 33
    Hirschfeld M, Ma Y, Weis J H et al. Cutting edge: repurification of lipopolysaccharide eliminates signaling through both human and murine toll-like receptor 2. J Immunol 2000: 165: 618622.
  • 34
    Scheibner K A, Lutz M A, Boodoo S, Fenton M J, Powell J D, Horton M R. Hyaluronan fragments act as an endogenous danger signal by engaging TLR2. J Immunol 2006: 177: 12721281.
  • 35
    Jiang D, Liang J, Fan J et al. Regulation of lung injury and repair by Toll-like receptors and hyaluronan. Nat Med 2005: 11: 11731179.
  • 36
    Sugahara K N, Hirata T, Hayasaka H, Stern R, Murai T, Miyasaka M. Tumor cells enhance their own CD44 cleavage and motility by generating hyaluronan fragments. J Biol Chem 2006: 281: 58615868.
  • 37
    Zeng C, Toole B P, Kinney S D, Kuo J W, Stamenkovic I. Inhibition of tumor growth in vivo by hyaluronan oligomers. Int J Cancer 1998: 77: 396401.
  • 38
    Merrell M A, Ilvesaro J M, Lehtonen N et al. Toll-like receptor 9 agonists promote cellular invasion by increasing matrix metalloproteinase activity. Mol Cancer Res 2006: 4: 437447.