Figure S1. Treatment of primary human dermal fibroblasts with pal-KTTKS or GEKG for 24h in vitro resulted in (a) significantly increased collagen secretion, and significant upregulation of mRNA for (b) COL1A1, HAS-1 and fibronectin. In an in vivo approach, 10 healthy human volunteers (six female and four male, 40–65 years, average 48.2; with 45.0 for females and 54.0 for males) were enrolled after written informed consent into a double-blind, placebo-controlled study (approval had been obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Heinrich-Heine University) conducted according to the ethical rules stated in the Declaration of Helsinki Principles and the ICH GCP guideline was observed insofar as applicable. After treatment with 50ppm GEKG in an O/W vehicle (= placebo 1) for 60 days on buttock skin, biopsies were taken for assessment of gene expression of (c) COL1A1. In addition skin elasticity (d) was determined.

Figure S2. In a second in vivo study (n = 60), the effects of pal-KTTKS (10 ppm Matrixyl®) and 10 and 100 ppm GEKG in an O/W vehicle (placebo 2) were compared with regards to (a) skin elasticity, (b) skin volume and (c) skin roughness on the inner forearm. In a facial wrinkle study (n = 30) the effects of 50 ppm GEKG on facial wrinkles as compared to an O/W vehicle (placebo 3) after 4 and 8 weeks twice daily application were assessed with the Primos Pico system (d) on the level of arithmetic average of surface roughness Sa and Sz.

Table S1. Primer pairs for real time PCR.

Table S2. Formulations used in these in vivo studies.

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