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Figure S1. TGF-β inhibits dendritic cells (DC) maturation in response to toll-like receptors agonists. Murine CD11c+ BMDC were treated with TGF-β for 72 h and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) R595 (1 μg/ml) for the last 24 h. Unstimulated DC with or without TGF-β treatment displayed intermediate levels of MHC class II expression and low CD86 expression as determined by FACS analysis indicative for an immature phenotype (a, upper panel, left columns). After stimulation with LPS, DC not pretreated with TGF-β readily matured as shown by MHC class II and CD86 upregulation, while TGF-β-treated DC were hampered in achieving a mature phenotype (a, upper panel, right columns). Intracytoplasmic FACS displayed IL-12p40 secretion only by LPS stimulated DC not receiving pretreatment with TGF-β while TGF-β nearly completely inhibited IL-12p40 secretion in response to LPS activation (a, lower panel). (b) Production of IL-12p70 but not IL-10 was almost completely inhibited by pretreatment of DC with TGF-β as determined by ELISA.

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