Intramolecular and intermolecular spreading during the course of organ allograft rejection

Authors


Nicole Suciu-Foca, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 1 68th Street - P&S 14-401, New York NY 10032, USA, Fax: 1 212 305 3429, e-mail: sucin_foca@cuccfa.ccc.columbia.edu

Abstract

Summary: There are two distinct pathways by which T cells may MHC alloantigens. The direct pathway involves T-cell recognition of intact MHC molecules expressed by donor antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The second, or indirect, pathway describes T-cell recognition of peptides derived from the processing and presentation of allogeneic MHC molecules on self APCs. Recent data demonstrates that indirect recognition plays a central role in both acute and chronic rejection of human organ allografts. Our studies have shown that, at the onset of primary acute rejection, recipient T-cell responses lo donor HLA-DR alloantigens are limited to a single dominant determinant present on erne of the disparate alloantigens and restricted by one of the responder's HLA-DR molecules. In allograft recipients with recurring episodes of rejection, and/or at the onset of chronic rejection, recipient T-cell reactivity may spread lo other epitopes within the allogeneic MHC molecule as well as to other alloantigens expressed by graft tissue. Both quantitative and qualitative alterations in T-cell allopeptide reactivity are associated with increased risk of cellular and/or humoral rejection. These studies provide a basis for the design of new therapeutic strategies and for immunologic monitoring of transplant recipients.

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