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Platelet integrins and immunoreceptors

Authors


Sanford J. Shattil
Department of Medicine
University of California, San Diego
9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, CA 92093-0726, USA
Tel.: +1 858 822 6425
Fax: +1 858 822 6544
E-mail: sshattil@ucsd.edu

Abstract

Summary:  Stable platelet adhesion to extracellular matrices and the formation of a hemostatic or pathological thrombus are dependent on integrin αIIbβ3, also known as GPIIb–IIIa. However, maximal platelet responses to vascular injury may involve the participation of other integrins expressed in platelets (αVβ3, α2β1, α5β1, and α6β1). Platelet membrane ‘immunoreceptors’ contain at least one subunit with an extracellular immunoglobulin superfamily domain and/or an intracellular stimulatory immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) or immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM). Platelet ITAM receptors, such as FcγRIIA and the GPVI–FcRγ complex, promote activation of integrins, while ITIM receptors, such as platelet–endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, may promote their inhibition. This review summarizes the structure and function of platelet integrins and immunoreceptors, the emerging functional relationships between these receptor classes, and the consequences of their interaction for platelet function in hemostasis and thrombosis.

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