Summary: Death receptors (DRs) are more than simple killers: they control cell growth, proliferation, and survival, thereby playing a pivotal role in immune and inflammatory responses. Some of these phenomena might be explained by aberrant reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and metabolism, which can lead to oxidative stress. A key signaling molecule of DR-initiated intracellular pathways, receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), orchestrates a complex control of multiple responses and may link DR-associated signaling complexes to ROS production by mitochondria. Yet, RIP1 is also an important regulator of endogenous anti-oxidants and ROS scavenging enzymes, because it is required for nuclear factor κB activation that results in expression of anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant proteins. Alteration of RIP1 function may result in ROS accumulation and abnormal c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activation, affecting inflammatory responses, innate immunity, stress responses, and cell survival. These molecular mechanisms may be involved in neoplastic, autoimmune, neurodegenerative, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases.