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Human regulatory T cells: role in autoimmune disease and therapeutic opportunities

Authors


Jeffrey A. Bluestone
UCSF Diabetes Center
University of California, San Francisco
PO Box 0540, 513 Parnassus Ave.
San Francisco, CA 94143 0540, USA
Tel.: 415 514 1683
Fax: 415 564 5813
e-mail: jbluest@diabetes.ucsf.edu

Abstract

Summary The importance of regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) in the control of autoimmunity is now well established in a variety of experimental animal models. In addition, there are numerous studies suggesting that Treg deficits may be an underlying cause of human autoimmune diseases. The emergence of Tregs as an essential component of immune homeostasis provides a potential therapeutic opportunity for active immune regulation and long-term tolerance induction. In this article, we summarize the core basic science and animal model studies of Tregs, review the status of multiple biologic and small molecule chemical compounds to promote Treg development in vivo, and discuss recent advances for the identification and expansion of polyclonal and antigen-specific Tregs for adoptive immunotherapy. In summary, the review provides an in-depth analysis and highlights the challenges and opportunities for immune intervention with Treg-based therapeutics.

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