Summary: The immune system requires for its proper ontogeny, differentiation, and maintenance the function of several tyrosine kinases and adapters that create and modify tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Tyrosine phosphorylation is a crucial protein modification in immune cell signaling and can be reversed by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Much progress has been made in identifying and understanding PTP function in the immune system. In this review, we present one of these proteins, named T-cell PTPs (TC-PTP) (gene name PTPN2), a classical, non-receptor PTP that is ubiquitously expressed with particularly high expression in hematopoietic tissues. TC-PTP is remarkable not only by the fact that it appears to influence most, if not all, cells involved in the development of the immune system, from stem cells to differentiated lineages, but also recent findings have positioned it at the core of several human diseases from autoimmune disease to cancer.