• AID;
  • bacteria;
  • B-1 cells;
  • IgA;
  • T-independent;
  • T-dependent

Summary:  The gut harbors an extremely dense and complex community of microorganisms that are in constant dialog with our immune cells. The gut bacteria provide strong selective pressure to the host to evolve innate and adaptive immune responses required for the maintenance of local and systemic homeostasis. One of the most conspicuous responses of the gut immune system following microbial colonization is the production of immunoglobulin A (IgA). In this review, we discuss the roles of B-1 and B-2 cells in IgA-mediated immunity and present an updated view for the sites and mechanisms of IgA synthesis in the gut. We summarize the role of secretory IgAs for regulation of microbial communities and provide clues as to how the gut microbiota contributes to the development of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues.