• RORγt;
  • Th17 cells;
  • innate lymphoid cells;
  • IL-17;
  • IL-22;
  • symbiotic microbiota

Summary:  The nuclear hormone receptor retinoid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) induces a pro-inflammatory program in lymphoid cells, culminating in the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-17, IL-22, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor. During ontogeny, the first type of cells expressing RORγt are lymphoid tissue inducer cells, a type of innate lymphoid cell (ILC) generated in mammalian fetuses to induce the development of lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches. After birth, RORγt+ ILCs and RORγt+ T cells are involved in the defense of epithelial surfaces against extracellular microbes and play an important role in the intestinal homeostasis with symbiotic microbiota. The development and evolution of RORγt+ cells is intimately associated with the construction of a stable host–microbe interface.