Contribution of Toll-like receptor signaling to germinal center antibody responses

Authors

  • Anthony L. DeFranco,

    1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Derek C. Rookhuizen,

    1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    2. Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Baidong Hou

    1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    2. Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Search for more papers by this author

Anthony L. DeFranco
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
University of California
San Francisco, CA 94143-0414, USA
Tel.: +1 415 476 5488
Fax: +1 415 502 8424
e-mail: anthony.defranco@ucsf.edu

Abstract

Summary:  Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have emerged as one of the most important families of innate immune receptors for initiating inflammation and also for promoting adaptive immune responses. Recent studies have examined the ability of TLRs to promote antibody responses, including T-cell-dependent antibody responses. Initial study suggested that TLR stimulation promotes primarily an extrafollicular antibody response, which rapidly produces moderate affinity antibodies made by short-lived plasma cells. Recent studies, however, have shown that TLRs can also enhance the germinal center response, which produces high affinity class-switched antibody made by long-lived plasma cells. TLR stimulation can increase the magnitude of the latter response and also enhance selection for high affinity IgG. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles of TLRs in B cells and also in other cell types for enhancement of antibody responses, with an emphasis on T-cell-dependent and germinal center antibody responses.

Ancillary