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Keywords:

  • regulatory T cells;
  • plasticity;
  • cancer;
  • autoimmunity

Summary:  Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical to the human immune system, providing appropriately scaled immune responses and mediating peripheral tolerance. A central role for forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)+ Tregs has been shown in the pathogenesis of mechanistically diverse central nervous system (CNS) diseases from autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis to glioblastomas. Understanding how tumors induce Treg function to escape immune surveillance in marked contrast to autoimmune diseases, where there is loss of Treg function, will provide valuable lessons regarding Treg biology and potential therapeutic targets for CNS diseases.