Liver X receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor as integrators of lipid homeostasis and immunity

Authors

  • Yoko Kidani,

    1. Institute for Molecular Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    2. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
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  • Steven J. Bensinger

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    2. Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    • Institute for Molecular Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
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Correspondence to:

Steven J. Bensinger

David Geffen School of Medicine

University of California

675 Charles E. Young Drive

Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA

Tel.: +1 310 825 9885

Fax: +1 310 267 6267

e-mail: sbensinger@mednet.ucla.edu

Summary

Lipid metabolism has emerged as an important modulator of innate and adaptive immune cell fate and function. The lipid-activated transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, β/δ, γ and liver X receptor (LXR) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that have a well-defined role in regulating lipid homeostasis and metabolic diseases. Accumulated evidence over the last decade indicates that PPAR and LXR signaling also influence multiple facets of inflammation and immunity, thereby providing important crosstalk between metabolism and immune system. Herein, we provide a brief introduction to LXR and PPAR biology and review recent discoveries highlighting the importance of PPAR and LXR signaling in the modulation of normal and pathologic states of immunity. We also examine advances in our mechanistic understanding of how nuclear receptors impact immune system function and homeostasis. Finally, we discuss whether LXRs and PPARs could be pharmacologically manipulated to provide novel therapeutic approaches for modulation of the immune system under pathologic inflammation or in the context of allergic and autoimmune disease.

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