SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Chao, C.Y.H. and Wan, M.P. (2006) A study of the dispersion of expiratory aerosols in uni-directional downward and ceiling-return type airflows using multiphase approach, Indoor Air, 16, 296312.
  • Chao, C.Y.H., Wan, M.P. and Sze To, G.N. (2008) Transport and removal of expiratory droplets in hospital ward environment, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 42, 377394.
  • Chao, C.Y.H., Wan, M.P., Morawska, L., Johnson, G.R., Ristovski, Z.D., Hargreaves, M., Mengersen, K., Corbett, S., Li, Y., Xie, X. and Katoshevski, D. (2009) Characterization of expiration air jets and droplet size distributions immediately at the mouth opening, J. Aerosol. Sci., 40, 122133.
  • Choudhury, D. (1993) Introduction to the Renormalization Group Method and Turbulence Modeling, Canonsburg, Fluent Inc. Technical Memorandum TM-107.
  • Clift, R., Grace, J.R. and Weber, M.E. (1978) Bubbles, Drops, and Particles, New York, Academic Press.
  • Duguid, J.F. (1945) The numbers and the sites of origin of the droplets expelled during expiratory activities, Edinb. Med. J., 52, 335340.
  • FLUENT (2005) Fluent 6.2 User’s Guide, Lebanon, NH, Fluent Inc.
  • Gao, N., Niu, J. and Morawska, L. (2008) Distribution of respiratory droplets in enclosed environments under different air distribution methods, Build. Simul. Int. J., 1, 326335.
  • Gold, E. and Nankervis, G.A. (1989) Cytomegalovirus. In: Evans, A. (ed) Viral Infections of Humans, New York, Plenum Medical Book Co., 175176.
  • Hamey, P.Y. (1982) The Evaporation of Airborne Droplets, MSc Thesis, Bedfordshire, UK, Granfield Institute of Technology, 4858.
  • Hinds, W.C. (1999) Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles, 2nd edn, NewYork, Wiley.
  • Jennison, M.W. (1942) Aerobiology, Washington DC, USA, American Association of Advanced Science, 106.
  • Lai, A.C.K. and Cheng, Y.C. (2007) Study of expiratory droplet dispersion and transport using a new Eulerian modeling approach, Atmos. Environ., 41, 74737484.
  • Launder, B.E. and Spalding, D.B. (1974) The numerical computation of turbulent flows, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 3, 269289.
  • Li, Y., Huang, X., Yu, I.T.S., Wong, T.W. and Qian, H. (2004) Role of air distribution in SARS transmission during the largest nosocomial outbreak in Hong Kong, Indoor Air, 15, 8395.
  • Li, Y., Leung, G.M., Tang, J.W., Yang, X., Chao, C., Lin, J.H., Lu, J.W., Nielsen, P.V., Niu, J.L., Qian, H., Sleigh, A.C., Su, H.J., Sundell, J., Wong, T.W. and Yuen, P.L. (2007) Role of ventilation in airborne transmission of infectious agents in the built environment – a multidisciplinary systematic review, Indoor Air, 17, 218.
  • Loudon, R.G. and Roberts, R.M. (1967) Relation between the airborne diameter of respiratory droplets and the diameter of the stains left after recovery, Nature, 213, 9596.
  • McCluskey, R., Sandin, R. and Greene, J. (1996) Detection of airborne cytomegalovirus in hospital rooms of immunocompromised patients, J. Virol. Methods, 56, 115118.
  • Morawska, L. (2006) Droplet fate in indoor environments, or can we prevent the spread of infection? Indoor Air, 16, 335347.
  • Morawska, L., Johnson, G.R., Ristovski, Z.D., Hargreaves, M., Mengersen, K., Corbett, S., Chao, C.Y.H., Li, Y. and Katoshevski, D. (2009) Size distribution and sites of origin of droplets expelled from the human respiratory tract during expiratory activities, J. Aerosol Sci., 40, 256269.
  • Nazaroff, W.W. (2008) Inhalation intake fraction of pollutant from episodic indoor emissions, Build. Environ., 43, 269277.
  • Nicas, M., Nazaroff, W.W. and Hubbard, A. (2005) Toward understanding the risk of secondary airborne infection: emission of respirable pathogens, J. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 2, 143154.
  • Nielsen, P.V. (2004) Computational fluid dynamics and room air movement, Indoor air, 14(Suppl. 7), 134143.
  • Nielsen, P.V., Buus, M., Winther, F.V. and Thilageswaran, M. (2008) Contaminant flow in the microenvironment between people under different ventilation conditions, ASHRAE Trans., 114, 632638. Part 2.
  • Papineni, R.S. and Rosenthal, F.S. (1997) The size distribution of droplets in the exhaled breath of healthy human subjects, J. Aerosol Med., 10, 105116.
  • Qian, H., Li, Y., Nielsen, P.V., Hyldgaard, C.E., Wong, T.W. and Chwang, A.T.Y. (2006) Dispersion of exhaled droplet nuclei in a two-bed hospital ward with three different ventilation systems, Indoor Air, 16, 111128.
  • Qian, H., Li, Y., Nielsen, P.V. and Hyldgaard, C.E. (2008) Dispersion of exhalation pollutants in a two-bed hospital ward with a downward ventilation system, Build. Environ., 43, 334354.
  • Ranz, W.E. and Marshall, W.R. Jr. (1952a) Evaporation from drops, Part I, Chem. Eng. Prog., 48, 141146. March.
  • Ranz, W.E. and Marshall, W.R. Jr. (1952b) Evaporation from drops, Part II, Chem. Eng. Prog., 48, 173180. April.
  • Richardson, L.F. (1910) The approximate arithmetical solution by finite differences of physical problems involving differential equations, with an application to the stresses in a masonry dam, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., 210, 307357.
  • Richmond-Bryant, J. (2009) Transport of exhaled particulate matter in airborne infection isolation rooms, Build. Environ., 44, 4455.
  • Roache, P.J. (1994) Perspective: a method for uniform reporting of grid refinement studies, ASME J. Fluids Eng., 116, 405413.
  • Sun, W., Ji, J., Li, Y. and Xie, X. (2007) Dispersion and settling characteristics of evaporating droplets in ventilated room, Build. Environ., 42, 10111017.
  • Wan, M.P. and Chao, C.Y.H. (2007) Transport characteristics of expiratory droplets and droplet nuclei in indoor environments with different ventilation air flow patterns, J. Biomech. Eng., T-ASME., 129, 341353.
  • Wan, M.P., Chao, C.Y.H., Ng, Y.D., Sze To, G.N. and Yu, W.C. (2007) Dispersion of expiratory droplets in a general hospital ward with ceiling mixing type mechanical ventilation system, Aerosol. Sci. Technol., 41, 244258.
  • Wang, B., Zhang, A., Sun, J., Liu, H., Hu, J. and Xu, L. (2005) Study of SARS transmission via liquid droplets in air, Trans. ASME, 127, 3238A.
  • Wells, W.F. (1934) On air-borne infection. Study II. Droplets and droplet nuclei, Am. J. Hyg., 20, 611618.
  • Xie, X., Li, Y., Chwang, A.T.Y., Ho, P.L. and Seto, W.H. (2007) How far droplets can move in indoor environments – revisiting the Wells evaporation–falling curve, Indoor Air, 17, 211225.
  • Yang, S., Lee, G.W.M., Chen, C.M., Wu, C.C. and Yu, K.P. (2007) The size and concentration of droplets generated by coughing in human subjects, J. Aerosol Med., 20, 484494.
  • Zhao, B., Zhang, Y., Li, X., Yang, X. and Huang, D. (2004) Comparison of indoor aerosol particle concentration and deposition in different ventilated rooms by numerical method, Build. Environ., 39, 18.
  • Zhao, B., Zhang, Z. and Li, X.T. (2005) Numerical study of the transport of droplets or particles generated by respiratory system indoors, Build. Environ., 40, 10321039.
  • Zhao, B., Yang, C., Yang, X. and Liu, S. (2008) Particle dispersion and deposition in ventilated rooms: testing and evaluation of different Eulerian and Lagrangian models, Build. Environ., 43, 388397.
  • Zhao, B., Chen, C. and Tan, Z. (2009) Modeling of ultrafine particle dispersion in indoor environments with an improved drift flux model, J. Aerosol Sci., 40, 2943.
  • Zhu, S., Kato, S. and Yang, J.H. (2006) Study on transport characteristics of saliva droplets produced by coughing in a calm indoor environment, Build. Environ., 41, 16911702.