ABSTRACT— We performed a prospective study on 375 patients with liver disease, 60% female, for whom orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) was considered during 1977–1985. Fifty-four per cent had cirrhosis, 8.5% congenital/hereditary disorders, 25% malignant tumour, 6% benign tumour, 2% Budd-Chiari syndrome, 1.5% acute hepatic failure, 3% other diagnoses, and 10% were under 15 years of age. As of July Ist, 1985, 99 patients (47 chronic active/inactive cirrhosis (CAC/CIC), 28 primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), five hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 19 other diagnoses) were accepted for OLT (median age 40 years, 10% under age 15). By that date, 45 patients (median age 42), had had an OLT (20 CAC/CIC, 15 PBC, three biliary atresia, two HCC, five other diagnoses). Fifty-four per cent (201 patients) were rejected for transplantation. The primary reasons for rejection were: no indication (11%), age (5%), other surgical procedures possible (3%), severe liver failure (14%), extrahepatic spread of liver tumour (11%), cardiovascular or pulmonary problems (2%), severe hepatic bone disease (1%), and miscellaneous (7%). Thirty per cent of the patients with CAC/CIC, 38% with PBC, 88% with HCC and 71% with biliary atresia were rejected. In the CAC/CIC, PBC and biliary atresia patients severe liver failure was the most frequent reason for rejection (62%, 50% and 60%, respectively). In HCC, extrahepatic tumour spread was the most frequent reason (72%) for rejection. In this category only two patients (7%) ultimately underwent liver transplantation.