• In situ hybridization;
  • thyroglobulin gene;
  • anonymous DNA sequences: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase;
  • phosphoglycerate kinase;
  • multigene family;
  • chromosomal mapping;
  • ring marker chromosomes

Abstract: The in situ hybridization technique was used for the localization on human chromosomes of single-copy and repeated sequences and, in addition, for the characterization of altered human chromosomes. Two anonymous clones, single or low-copy, obtained from a human X chromosome library were localized on the distal part of the long arm and in the paracentromeric region of X chromosome, respectively. A genomic fragment of the single-copy thyroglobulin (TG) gene was used to confirm the localization on the distal part of the long arm of chromosome 8. The localization and distribution on human chromosomes of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) multigene family obtained by in situ hybridization and by somatic cell hybrids were compared. A phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) c-DNA clone, which detects genic and pseudogenic sequences on the X chromosome, was used for the characterization of three small ring markers present in unrelated female patients.