Abstract: Thirty-five children with chronic HBV infection, HBV-DNA and eAg serum positivity, and HBcAg in liver tissue were treated with lymphoblastoid human interferon alpha with (16 cases) or without (19 cases) prednisolone pretreatment. The patients were double-blind randomized to receive steroid or placebo for 4 weeks, followed after 2 weeks by 5 or 10 MU/m2 interferon for 12 weeks. The e anti-e seroconversion rate reached 48%, which is much higher than the spontaneous seroconversion rate. The influence of “prednisolone priming” was not statistically significant. HBeAg clearance was similar in both groups (44% after prednisolone/interferon and 53% after interferon alone). The response to either treatment did not correlate with the pretreatment serum transaminase, HBV-DNA or degree of histological activity. Interferon was well tolerated, the side effects being less severe than in adults, and never led to suspension of the treatment.