Abstract: The importance of the bioactivation of 1-naphthylisothiocyanate was studied. Forty minutes after 1-naphthylisothiocyanate administration to rats, bile was collected over a 2.5-h period; the liver was then excised and homogenized. 1-naphthylisothiocyanate and its metabolites in bile and liver of rats were identified and quantified using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three main compounds were found in all 1-naphthylisothiocyanate-treated animals. They were identified as 1-naphthyl isocyanate, 1-naphthylamine and the parent compound, 1-naphthylisothiocyanate. When rats were given cycloheximide, which attenuates 1-naphthylisothiocyanate toxicity, 30 min before 1-naphthylisothiocyanate (300 mg/kg), 1-naphthyl isocyanate concentration was significantly lower than in rats receiving only 1-naphthylisothiocyanate. The appearance of 1-naphthylamine was also inhibited by cycloheximide, although not to the same extent as 1-naphthyl isocyanate. On the other hand, phenobarbital, which potentiates 1-naphthylisothiocyanate hepatotoxicity, enhanced 1-naphthyl isocyanate and 1-naphthylamine formation. It is suggested that 1-naphthyl isocyanate, 1-naphthylamine and the highly reactive sulfur released from 1-naphthylisothiocyanate might be involved in the hepatotoxic effect of 1-naphthylisothiocyanate.