Animal dispersal depends on multiple factors, such as habitat features and life-history traits of the species. We studied the propensity for ballooning dispersal in spiders under standardized laboratory conditions. The 1269 tested individuals belonged to 124 species and originated from 16 sites with wide variation in habitat type. Spiders from disturbed habitats ballooned 5.5 times more than spiders from stable habitats. In Meioneta rurestris , for which we had enough data for a single-species analysis, individuals were most dispersive if they originated from highly disturbed habitats. While the data for the other species were not sufficient for single-species analyses, a hierarchical model that included the data simultaneously on all species suggested that dispersal propensity generally increases within species with the level of habitat disturbance. Dispersal probability showed a trend to increase with niche width, but the higher commonness of species with wide niches provides an alternative explanation for this pattern. As the prevalence of especially dispersive species was highest in disturbed habitats, variation in dispersal propensity was influenced by both inter- and intraspecific factors. We conclude that the positive correlation between niche width and dispersal propensity enables generalist species to utilize highly disturbed habitats, whereas the persistence of specialist species with restricted dispersal ability requires the conservation of stable habitats.