A wide variety of animals show latitudinal cline in body size, which can be caused not only by abiotic factors such as temperature but also by biotic ones such as diet quality. In seed feeding insects, adult body size is affected by seed size. Therefore, seed size may be an important factor to explain the latitudinal cline in body size if the seed size also shows a latitudinal cline. In the present study, we detected a latitudinal cline in body size of an alien bruchid, Acanthoscelides pallidipennis, which was introduced into Japan from North America with its host plant Amorpha fruticosa. In 13 out of 24 populations that we collected in Japan, A. fruticosa seeds were infested with A. pallidipennis. Both body size of A. pallidipennis and host seed weight increased with latitude in the infested populations, but not in the non-infested populations. There was a significant positive correlation between body size and seed weight in both field observation and laboratory experiment. In a common environmental condition, there was no significant difference in body size among three latitudinally different populations. Our results show that the latitudinal cline in adult body size of A. pallidipennis across a non-native range could be explained by the latitudinal cline in seed weight of A. fruticosa, but not by genetic differentiation among populations.