Get access

Fleeing towards death – leech-induced behavioural defences increase freshwater snail susceptibility to predatory fish


J. Ahlgren, Aquatic Ecology, Dept of Biology, Lund Univ., Ecology Building, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden. E-mail:


Prey species are often exposed to multiple predators, which presents several difficulties to prey species. This is especially true when the response to one predator influences the prey’s susceptibility to other predators. Predator-induced defences have evolved in a wide range of prey species, and experiments involving predators with different hunting strategies allow researchers to evaluate how prey respond to multiple threats. Freshwater snails are known to respond to a variety of predators with both morphological and behavioural defences. Here we studied how freshwater snails Radix balthica responded behaviourally to fish and leech predators, both separately and together. Our aim was to explore whether conflicting predator-induced responses existed and, if so, what effect they had on snail survival when both predatory fish and leeches were present. We found that although R. balthica increased refuge use when exposed to predatory fish, they decreased refuge use when exposed to predatory leeches. When both predators were present, snails showed a stronger response towards leech than fish and responded by leaving the refuge. This response made the snails more susceptible to fish predation, which increased snail mortality when exposed to both fish and leech compared to fish only. We show that predators that have a relatively low predation rate can substantially increase mortality rates by indirect effects. By forcing snails out of refuges such as rock and macrophyte habitats, leeches can indirectly increase predation from molluscivorous fish and may thus affect snail densities.