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Four adult Rhesus monkeys provided 120 teeth for buccal Class V cavities. Twenty-nine were non-exposed controls and 91 were exposed for 3 intervals. All 120 teeth were capped with a hard set Ca(OH)2, medicament, restored with amalgam, 57 evaluated after 1 year and 63 after 2 years. Of the 91 exposed pulps, 45 showed complete healing, 25 showed pulpal inflammation varying from acute to chronic, 12 showed severe pulpal breakdown and abscess formation and 9 were necrotic. No difference was observed in the healing response between the 3 exposure times. New hard tissue formed at, or subjacent to, the medicament in 77 of 91 exposed pulps with a tunnel defect frequently present, running from the medicament interlace to the pulp. This study demonstrates that recurring pulp inflammation observed after 1 & 2 year direct pulp capping, is associated with bacterial contamination.