The fine structure of tissue changes during the first 14 days following pulp exposure and capping with a hard setting Ca(OH), cement has been studied. The early changes included hemorrhage and moderate inflammation which were largely resolved during the first week. During the second week differentiation of cells occurred at the wound surface. These cells had the characteristic features of odontoblasts and formed a predentin-like collagen matrix. The capping material was closely adapted to cellular structures at the wound surface or to the predentin-like matrix at all observation periods. Dentin fragments displaced into the pulp tissue during cavity preparation, acted as sites for pulp stone formation.