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Keywords:

  • antiretroviral therapy;
  • HIV;
  • oncogenic virus;
  • oral human papilloma virus type 16;
  • saliva

J Oral Pathol Med (2012) 41: 309–314

Background:  The objectives of this study were to determine (i) the prevalence and the copy numbers of oral human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) in HIV-infected patients compared with non-HIV controls, and (ii) the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and its duration on the virus.

Methods:  A cross-sectional study was carried out in HIV-infected patients with and without ART and in non-HIV controls. Saliva samples were collected, and the DNA extracted from those samples was used as a template to detect HPV-16 E6 and E7 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Student’s t-test and ANOVA test were performed to determine the prevalence rates among groups.

Results:  Forty-nine HIV-infected patients: 37 on ART (age range, 23–54 years; mean, 37 years), 12 not on ART (age range, 20–40 years; mean, 31 years), and 20 non-HIV controls (age range, 19–53 years; mean, 31 years) were enrolled. The prevalence of oral HPV-16 infection and the copy numbers of the virus were significantly higher in HIV-infected patients than in non-HIV controls when using E6 assay (geometric mean = 10696 vs. 563 copies/105 cells, < 0.001), but not E7 assay. No significant difference was observed between those who were and were not on ART. Long-term use of ART did not significantly change the prevalence of oral HPV-16 infection and the copy numbers of the virus (P = 0.567).

Conclusion:  We conclude that the prevalence of oral HPV-16 infection and the copy numbers of the virus are increased by HIV infection. Neither the use of ART nor its duration significantly affected the virus.