J Oral Pathol Med (2012) 41: 697–701
Aim and background: Odontogenic keratocysts have a different growth mechanism and biologic behavior in comparison with more common dentigerous and radicular cysts. It was reclassified as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). The proliferative activity of the epithelial cells of KCOT has a close relationship with tissue levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1). Moreover, IL-1 increases the expression of several matrix metalloproteinases in the fibroblasts of adjacent stroma and activates the osteoclastogenesis process. So it plays an important role in the activity, spread, and local aggressiveness of this tumor. Therefore, it seems that the gene polymorphism of the cytokines of the IL-1 family is influential in the pathogenesis of KCOT and the patients’ susceptibility to disease.
Method: A total of 38 blood samples of patients suffering from KCOT and 150 blood samples of healthy patients were assessed using PCR-SSP. The blood samples were assessed for the following polymorphisms: interleukin-1 alpha (-889) and interleukin-1 beta (-511). Following up the patients, we found six recurrent and one syndromic cases.
Findings: By comparing the case and control groups, we observed the significant dominance of allele T over C, and genotype TT over CC and CT in IL-1α, although no significant difference was seen in the allele frequency and genotypes regarding IL-1β.
Conclusion: The function of IL-1α has a significant relationship with KCOT. Its effective genotype associated with pathogenesis, growth, local invasion, and recurrence is TT.