Production of carcinogenic acetaldehyde by Candida albicans from patients with potentially malignant oral mucosal disorders

Authors

  • M. L. Gainza-Cirauqui,

    1. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Unit, Dental Clinic Service, University of the Basque Country/EHU, Bilbao, Spain
    2. Department of Immunology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Medical Mycology Unit, University of the Basque Country/EHU, Bilbao, Spain
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  • M. T. Nieminen,

    1. Research Unit on Acetaldehyde and Cancer, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    2. Department of Oral Medicine, Institute of Dentistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
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  • L. Novak Frazer,

    1. Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, School of Translational Medicine and University Hospital of South Manchester, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
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  • J. M. Aguirre-Urizar,

    1. Department of Stomatology, University of the Basque Country/EHU, Bilbao, Spain
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  • M. D. Moragues,

    1. School of Nursing, University of the Basque Country/EHU, Bilbao, Spain
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  • R. Rautemaa

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Oral Medicine, Institute of Dentistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    2. Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, School of Translational Medicine and University Hospital of South Manchester, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    3. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    • Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Unit, Dental Clinic Service, University of the Basque Country/EHU, Bilbao, Spain
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Correspondence: Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Education and Research Centre, 2nd Floor, Wythenshawe Hospital, Southmoor Road, Manchester M23 9LT UK. Tel: +44 161 291 5914, Fax: +44 161 291 5806, E-mail: riina.richardson@manchester.ac.uk

Abstract

Objectives

Production of carcinogenic acetaldehyde by Candida has been suggested to contribute to epithelial dysplasia and oral carcinogenesis. Oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesion (OLL) and oral leukoplakia (OL) are potentially carcinogenic oral diseases where colonisation by Candida is common, but acetaldehyde production by Candida has not been studied.

Study Design

Acetaldehyde production in ethanol (11 mM), glucose (100 mM), ethanol–glucose (11 mM and 100 mM) or red wine (1200 mM ethanol) incubation by Candida albicans from patients with OLL (n = 6), OLP (n = 16), OL (n = 6) and controls (n = 6) was measured by gas chromatography. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding their smoking habits and alcohol consumption.

Results

All Candida albicans isolates produced potentially carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde (>100 μM) in all incubations containing ethanol. The control group isolates produced the highest acetaldehyde levels. Isolates from smokers produced more acetaldehyde in all incubations than those from non-smokers. The difference was significant in ethanol–glucose incubation. Isolates from patients who were both smokers and drinkers produced the highest amounts when incubated in ethanol, ethanol–glucose and wine.

Conclusions

Candida albicans isolated from potentially carcinogenic oral diseases can produce mutagenic amounts of acetaldehyde. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption may favour adaptational changes resulting in the upregulation of candidal acetaldehyde metabolism.

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