SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Adema, C.M., E.C. van Deutekom-Mulder, W.P.W. van der Knaap, E.A. Meuleman, and T. Sminia (1991) Generation of oxygen radicals in hemocytes of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis in relation to the rate of phagocytosis. Devel. Comp. Immunol., 15, 1726.
  • Adema, C.M. and W.P.W. van der Knaap (1991) Molluscan hemocyte-mediated cytotoxicity: The role of reactive oxygen intermediates. Rev. Aquat. Sci., 4, 201223.
  • Anderson, R.S., L.M. Oliver, and L.L. Brubacher (1992) Superoxide anion generation by Crassostrea virginica hemocytes as measured by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. J. Invertebr. Pathol., 59, 303307.
  • Aroca, P., J.C. Garcia-Borron, R.L. Solano, and J.A. Lozano (1989) Regulation of mammalian melanogenesis I: Partial purification and characterization of a dopachrome converting factor: Dopachrome tautomerase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 1035, 266275.
  • Aroca, P., F. Solano, J.C. Garcia-Borron, and J.A. Lozano (1991) Specificity of dopachrome tautomerase and inhibition by carboxylated indoles. Biochem. J., 277, 393397.
  • Aroca, P., F. Solano, C. Salinas, J.C. Garcia-Borron, and J.A. Lozano (1992) Regulation of the final phase of mammalian melanogenesis. The role of dopachrome tautomerase and the ratio between 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid and 5,6-dihydroxyindole. Eur. J. Biochem., 208, 155163.
  • Aruoma, O.I., B. Halliwell, E. Gajewski, and M. Dizdaroglu (1991) Copper-ion-dependent damage to the bases in DNA in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Biochem. J., 273, 601604.
  • Aso, Y., Y. Imamura, and N. Yamasaki (1989) Further studies on dopa quinone imine conversion factor from cuticles of Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem., 19, 401407.
  • Aso, Y., K. Nakashima, and N. Yamasaki (1990) Changes in the activity of dopa quinone imine conversion factor during the development of Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem., 20, 685690.
  • Buu, N. (1985) Relationship between catechol-O-methyltransferase and phenolsulfotransferase in the metabolism of dopamine in the rat brain. J. Neurochem., 45, 16121619.
  • Barber, J.I., D. Townsend, D.P. Olds, and R.A. King (1984) Dopachrome oxidoreductase: A new enzyme in the pigment pathway. J. Invest. Dermatol, 83, 145149.
  • Brunet, P.C.J. (1980) The metabolism of aromatic amino acids concerned in the crosslinking of insect cuticle. Insect Biochem., 10, 467500.
  • Cadenas, E. (1989) Biochemistry of oxygen toxicity. Ann Rev. Biochem., 58, 79110.
  • Chakraborty, A.K., S.J. Orlow, and J.M. Pawelek (1992). Evidence that dopachrome tautomerase is a ferrous iron-binding glycoprotein. FEBS Lett, 302, 126128.
  • Chance, B., H. Sies, and A. Boveris (1979) Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs. Physiol. Rev., 59, 527605.
  • Christensen, B.M. and A.J. Nappi (1988) Immune responses of arthropods. ISI Atlas of Science. Animal sciences, pp. 1519.
  • Christensen, B.C. and J.W. Tracy (1989) Arthropod-transmitted parasites: Mechanisms of immune interaction. Am. Zool., 29, 387398.
  • Coombe, D.R., P.L. Ey, and C.R. Jenkin (1984) Self and nonself recognition in invertebrates. Q. Rev. Biol., 59, 231255.
  • Crippa, R., V. Horak, G. Prota, P. Svoronos, and L. Wolfram (1989) Chemistry of Melanins. In: Brossi, A. (ed.) The alkaloids, vol. 36, Academic Press, New York , pp. 253323.
  • Dikkeboom, R., C.J. Bayne, W.P.W. van der Knaap, and J.M.G.H. Tignagel (1988a) Possible role of reactive forms of oxygen in in vitro killing of Schistosoma mansoni sporocytes by hemocytes of Lymnaea stagnalis. Parasitol. Res., 75, 148154.
  • Dikkeboom, R., W.P.W. van der Knaap, W. van den Bovenkamp, J.M.G.H. Tijnagel, and C.J. Bayne (1988b) The production of toxic oxygen metabolites by hemocytes of different snail species. Devel. Comp. Immunol., 12, 509520.
  • Dikkeboom, R., J.M.G.H. Tijnagel, E.C. Mulder, and W.P.W. van der Knaap (1987) Hemocytes of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis generate reactive forms of oxygen. J. Invertebr. Pathol., 49, 321331.
  • Fridovich, I. (1986) Biological effects of the superoxide radical. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 247, 111.
  • Fridovich, I. (1988) The biology of oxygen radicals: General concepts. In: Oxygen radicals and tissue injury. B.Halliwell, ed. Fed. Amer. Soc. Exper. Biol., Bethesda , MD , pp. 18.
  • Gotz, P. (1986) Mechanisms of encapsulation in dipteran hosts. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 56, 119.
  • Gotz, P. and H.G. Boman (1985) Insect immunity. In: Comprehensive insect physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology, vol. 3, G.A.Kerkut and L.I.Gilbert eds. Pergamon Press, Oxford , pp. 453485.
  • Gupta, A. P. (1988) Hemocytic and Humoral Immunity in Arthropods. John Wiley and Sons. New York , 535 pp.
  • Halliwell, B. and J.M.C. Gutteridge (1989) Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Oxford University Press, Oxford , 543 pp.
  • Harris, E.D. (1992) Regulation of antioxidant enzymes. FASEB, 6, 26752683.
  • Hearing, V.J. and K. Tsukamoto (1991) Enzymatic control of pigmentation in mammals. FASEB J., 5, 29022909.
  • Hubbard-Smith, K., H.Z. Hill, and G.J. Hill (1992) Melanin both causes and prevents oxidative base damage in DNA: Quantification by anti-thymine glycol antibody. Radiat. Res., 130, 160165.
  • Ito, T., T. Matsutani, M. Katsuyoshi, and T. Nomura (1992) Phagocytosis and hydrogen peroxide production by the phagocytes of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Dev. Comp. Immunol., 16, 287294.
  • Kopin, I.J. (1985) Catecholamine metabolism: Basic aspects and clinical significance. Pharmacol. Rev., 37, 33364.
  • Korytowski, W., B. Kalyanaraman, I.A. Menton, T. Sarna, and R.C. Sealy (1986) Reaction of superoxide anions with melanins: Electron spin resonance and spin trapping studies. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 882, 145153.
  • Korytowski, W., and T. Sarna (1990) Bleaching of melanin pigments. Role of copper ions and hydrogen peroxides in auto-oxidation and photo-oxidation of synthetic dopa melanin. J. Biol. Chem., 265, 1241012416.
  • Leonard, L.J., D.W. Townsend, and R.A. King (1988) Function of dopachrome oxidoreductase and metal ions in dopachrome conversion in the eumelanin pathway. Biochemistry, 27, 61566161.
  • Lerch, K. (1981) Metal Ions in Biological Systems, Vol. 13. H.Sigel, ed. Marcel Dekker, New York , pp. 143186.
  • Li, J. and A.J. Nappi (1991) Electrochemical determination of dopachrome isomerase in larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 180, 724729.
  • Nakamura, M., K. Mori, S. Inooka, and T. Nomura (1985) In vitro production of hydrogen peroxide by the amoebocytes of the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis (JAY). Devel. Comp. Immunol., 9, 407417.
  • Nappi, A.J., Y. Carton, and F. Frey (1991) Parasite-induced enhancement of hemolymph tyrosinase activity in a selected immune reactive strain of Drosophila melanogaster. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol., 18, 159168.
  • Nappi, A.J., Y. Carton, J. Li, and E. Vass (1992a) Reduced cellular immune competence of a temperature-sensitive dopa decarboxylase mutant strain of Drosophila melanogaster against the parasite Leptopilina boulardi. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 101B:453460.
  • Nappi, A.J., E. Vass, Y. Carton, and F. Frey (1992b) Identification of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 5,6-dihydroxyindole and N-acetylarterenone during eumelanin formation in immune reactive larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol., 20, 181191.
  • Nappi, A.J. and M. Sugumaran (1993) Some biochemical aspects of eumelanin formation in insect immunity. In: Insect immunity. J.P.N.Pathak, ed. Oxford and IDH Pub. Co. New Delhi (in press).
  • O'Brien, P.J. (1991) Molecular mechanisms of quinone cytotoxicity. Chem. Biol. Interact., 80, 141.
  • Orlow, S.J., M.P. Osber, and J.M. Pawelek (1992) Synthesis and characterization of melanins from dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid and dihydroxyindole. Pigment Cell Res., 5, 113121.
  • Palumbo, A., M. D'Ischia, G. Misuraca, and G. Prota (1987) Effect of metal ions on the rearrangement of dopachrome. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 925, 203209.
  • Palumbo, A., M. D'Ischia, G. Misuraca, G. Prota, and T.M. Schultz (1988) Structural modifications in biosynthetic melanins induced by metal ions. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 964, 193199.
  • Palumbo, A., F. Solano, G. Misuraca, P. Aroca, J.C. Garcia Borron, J. A. Lozano, and G. Prota (1991) Comparative action of dopachrome tautomerase and metal ions on the rearrangement of dopachrome. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1115, 19.
  • Pavel, S., J.L. Holden, and P.A. Riley (1989) Metabolism of 4-hydroxyanisole: Identification of major urinary excretory products. Pigment Cell Res., 2, 421426.
  • Pawelek, J.M. (1990) Dopachrome conversion factor functions as an isomerase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 166, 13281333.
  • Pawelek, J., A. Korner, A. Bergstom, and J. Bologna (1980) New regulators of melanin biosynthesis and the autodestruction of melanoma cells. Nature, 286, 617619.
  • Pilas, B., T. Sarna, B. Kalyanaraman, and H.M. Swartz (1988) The effect of melanin on iron associated decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 4, 285293.
  • Pipe, R.K. (1992) Generation of reactive oxygen metabolites by the haemocytes of the mussel Mytilus edulis. Dev. Comp. Immunol., 16, 111122.
  • Prota, G. (1988) Progress in the chemistry of melanins and related metabolites. Med. Res. Rev., 8, 525556.
  • Prota, G. (1992) The role of peroxidase in melanogenesis revisited. Pigment Cell Res. (suppl.), 2, 2532.
  • Ratcliffe, N.A., A.F. Rowley, S.W. Fitzgerald, and C.P. Rhodes (1985) Invertebrate immunity: Basic concepts and recent advances. Int. Rev. Cytol., 97, 183350.
  • Riley, P.A. (1988) Radicals in melanin biochemistry. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 551, 111120.
  • Riley, P.A. (1992) Materia Melanica: Further dark thoughts. Pigment Cell Res., 5, 101106.
  • Robb, D.A. (1984) Tyrosinase. In: Copper proteins and copper enzymes, vol. 2. R.Lontie, ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton , FL , pp. 207240.
  • Rodriguez-Lopez, J.N., J. Tudela, R. Varon, F. Garcia-Carmona, and F. Garcia-Canovas (1992) Analysis of a kinetic model for melanin biosynthesis pathway. J. Biol. Chem., 265, 38013810.
  • Schaich, K.M. (1992) Metals and lipid oxidation. Contemporary issues. Lipids, 27, 209218.
  • Sealy, R.C., C.C. Felix, J.S. Hyde, and H.M. Swartz (1980) Structure and reactivity of melanins: Influence of free radicals and metal ions. In: Free radicals in biology, vol. 4. W.A.Pryor, ed. Academic Press, New York , pp. 209259.
  • Shozawa, A. (1986) A reducing factor produced by haemocytes of Biophalaria glabrata and its role on the host defence. Devel. Comp. Immunol., 10, 636.
  • Spina, M.B. and G. Cohen (1989) Dopamine turnover and glutathione oxidation: Implications for Parkinson's disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 86, 13981400.
  • Stadtman, E.R. (1990) Metal ion-catalyzed oxidation of proteins: Biochemical mechanisms and biological consequences. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 9, 315325.
  • Sugumaran, M. (1990) Prophenoloxidase activation and insect immunity. In: Defense molecules. Alan R. Liss, Inc. New York , pp. 4762.
  • Sugumaran, M. (1991). Molecular mechanisms for mammalian melanogenesis. Comparison with insect cuticular sclerotization. FEBS Lett, 293, 410.
  • Sugumaran, M. and V. Semensi (1991) Quinone methide as an intermediate in eumelanin biosynthesis, J. Biol. Chem., 266, 60736078.
  • Swartz, H.M., T. Sarna, and L. Zecca (1992) Modulation by neuromelanin of the availability and reactivity of metal ions. Ann. Neurol., 32, S69S75.
  • Tsukamoto, K., A. Palumbo, M. D'Ischia, V.J. Hearing, and J. Prota (1992) 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid is incorporated in mammalian melanin. Biochem. J., 286, 491495.
  • Vass, E., Nappi, A.J., and Y. Carton (1993) Alterations in the activities of tyrosinase, N-acetyltransferase, and tyrosine aminotransferase in immune reactive larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. Devel. Comp. Immunol., 17, 109118.