• 1
    Stoll HL Jr. Squamous cell carcinoma. In: FitzpatrickTB, EisenAZ, WolffK, FreedbergIM, AustenKF, eds. Dermatology in General Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1979. p. 362
  • 2
    van Scott EJ. Basal cell carcinoma. In: FitzpatrickTB, EisenAZ, WolffK, FreedbergIM, AustenKF, eds. Dermatology in General Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1979. p. 377
  • 3
    Gilchrest BA. Skin aging and photoaging: an overview. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989;21: 610613
  • 4
    Boissy RE. Melanosome transfer to and translocation in the keratinocyte. Exp Derm 2003;13: 512
  • 5
    Mason HS, Ingram DJE, Allen B. The free radical property of melanin. Arch Biochem Biophys 1960;86: 225230
  • 6
    Sarna T. Properties and function of the ocular melanin – a photobiophysical view. J Photochem Photobiol B 1992;12: 215258
  • 7
    Gilchrest BA, Blog FB, Szabo G. Effects of aging and chronic sun exposure on melanocytes in human skin. J Invest Dermatol 1979;73: 141143
  • 8
    Uehara M, Miyauchi H, Tanaka S. Diminished contact sensitivity response in vitiliginous skin. Arch Dermatol 1984;120: 195198
  • 9
    Hatchome N, Aiba S, Kato T, Torinuki W, Tagami H. Possible functional impairment of Langerhans cells in vitiliginous skin: reduced ability to elicit dinitrochlorobenzene contact sensitivity reaction and decreased stimulatory effect in the allogeneic mixed skin cell lymphocyte culture reaction. Arch Dermatol 1987;123: 5154
  • 10
    Nordlund JJ. The pigmentary system and inflammation. Pigment Cell Res 1992;5: 362365
  • 11
    Porter JR, Beuf AH, Lerner AB, Nordlund JJ. The effect of vitiligo on sexual relationship. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;22: 221222
  • 12
    Ortonne J-P, Bose SK. Vitiligo: where do we stand? Pigment Cell Res 1993;6: 6172
  • 13
    Boissy RE, Nordlund JJ. Biology of vitiligo. In: ArndtKA, LeBoitPE, RobinsonJK, WintroubBU, eds. Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery: An Integrated Program in Dermatology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 1995. pp. 12101218
  • 14
    Le Poole C, Boissy RE. Vitiligo. In: ArndtKA, Le BoitPE, RobinsonJK, WintroubBU, eds. Semin Cutan Med Surg, Vol. 16. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 1997. pp. 314
  • 15
    Nath SK, Majumder PP, Nordlund JJ. Genetic epidemiology of vitiligo: multilocus recessivity cross validated. Am J Hum Genet 1994;55: 981990
  • 16
    Nordlund JJ, Majumder PP. Recent investigations on vitiligo vulgaris. Dermatol Clin 1997;15: 6978
  • 17
    Boissy RE. Extracutaneous melanocytes. In: NordlundJJ, BoissyRE, HearingVJ, KingRA, OrtonneJP, eds. The Pigmentary System. Physiology and Pathophysiology. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998. pp. 5973
  • 18
    Porter J, Beuf A, Nordlund JJ, Lerner AB. Psychological reaction to chronic skin disorders. A study of patients with vitiligo. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1979;1: 7377
  • 19
    Porter JR, Beuf AH, Lerner A, Nordlund JJ. The psychosocial effect of vitiligo: a comparison of vitiligo patients with ‘normal’ controls, with psoriasis patients, and with patients with other pigmentary disorders. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986;15: 220224
  • 20
    Lerner AB. On the etiology of vitiligo and grey hair. Am J Med 1971;51: 141147
  • 21
    Ortonne J-P, Mosher DB, Fitzpatrick TB. Vitiligo and other hypomelanoses of hair and skin. In: ParrishJA, FitzpatrickTB, eds. Topics in Dermatology. New York: Plenum Medical Book Company; 1983
  • 22
    Le Poole IC, Das PK, van den Wijngaard RM, Bos JD, Westerhof W. Review of the etiopathomechanism of vitiligo: a convergence theory. Exp Dermatol 1993;2: 145153
  • 23
    Miyamoto L, Taylor JS, Chemical leukoderma. In: HannS-K, NordlundJJ, eds. Vitilogo: A Comprehensive Monograph on Basic and Clinical Science. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2000. pp. 269280
  • 24
    Scott MC, Suzuki I, Abdel-Malek ZA. Regulation of the human melanocortin 1 receptor expression in epidermal melanocytes by paracrine and endocrine factors, and by UV radiation. Pigment Cell Res 2002;15: 433439
  • 25
    Tsatmali M, Ancans J, Yukitake J, Thody AJ. Skin POMC peptides: their actions at the human MC-1 receptor and roles in the tanning response. Pigment Cell Res 2000;13(Suppl. 8):125129
  • 26
    Grimes PE. Melasma: etiologic and therapeutic considerations. Arch Dermatol 1995;131: 14531457
  • 27
    Kippenberger S, Loitsch S, Solano F, Bernd A, Kaufmann R. Quantification of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and Trp-2 transcripts in human melanocytes by reverse transcriptase-competitive multiplex PCR – regulation by steroid hormones. J Invest Dermatol 1998;110: 364367
  • 28
    Peacocke M, Yaar M, Mansur CP, Chao MV, Gilchrest BA. Induction of nerve growth factor receptors on cultured human melanocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1988;85: 52825286
  • 29
    Gilchrest BA, Park HY, Eller MS, Yaar M. Mechanisms of ultraviolet light-induced melanogenesis. Photochem Photobiol 1996;63: 110
  • 30
    Wakamatsu K, Graham A, Cook D, Thody AJ. Characterization of ACTH peptides in human skin and their activation of the melanocortin-1 receptor. Pigment Cell Res 1997;10: 288297
  • 31
    Slominski A. Identification of beta-endorphin, alpha-MSH and ACTH peptides in cultured human melanocytes, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma cells by RP-HPLC. Exp Dermatol 1998;7: 213216
  • 32
    Kauser S, Schallreuter KU, Thody AJ, Gummer C, Tobin DJ. Regulation of human epidermal melanocyte biology by beta-endorphin. J Invest Dermatol 2003;120: 10731080
  • 33
    Hochstein P, Cohen G. The cytotoxicity of melanin precursors. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1963;100: 876881
  • 34
    Riley PA. Mechanisms of inhibition of melanin pigmentation. In: NordlundJJ, BoissyRE, HearingVJ, KingRA, OrtonneJ-P, eds. The Pigmentary System. Physiology and Pathophysiology. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998. pp. 401421
  • 35
    Boissy RE. Vitiligo. In: TheofilopoulosAN, BonaCA, eds. The Molecular Pathology of Autoimmunity. Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach/Harwood Academic Publishers; 2001. pp. 773780
  • 36
    Hafez M, Sharaf L, El-Nabi SMA. The genetics of vitiligo. Acta Derm Venereol 1983;63: 249251
  • 37
    Majumder PP, Das DK, Li CC. A genetical model for vitiligo. Am J Hum Genet 1988;43: 119125
  • 38
    Majumder P, Nordlund JJ, Nath SK. Pattern of familial aggregation of vitiligo. Arch Dermatol 1993;129: 994998
  • 39
    Lacour JP, Ortonne JP. The genetics of vitiligo. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1995;124: 167171
  • 40
    Kim SM, Chung HS, Hann SK. The genetics of vitiligo in Korean patients. Int J Dermatol 1998;37: 908910
  • 41
    Shah VC, Mojamdar MV, Sharma KS. Some genetic, biochemical and physiological aspects of leucoderma vitiligo. J Cytol Genet Congr 1975;1(Suppl.): 173178
  • 42
    Shah VC, Haribhakti PB, Mojamdar MV, Sharma KS. Statistical study of 600 vitiligo cases in the city of Ahmedabad. Gujarat Med J 1977;42: 5159
  • 43
    Bhatia PS, Mohan L, Pandey ON, Singh KK, Arora SK, Mukhija RD. Genetic nature of vitiligo. J Dermatol Sci 1992;4: 180184
  • 44
    Alkhateeb A, Fain PR, Thody A, Bennett DC, Spritz RA. Epidemiology of vitiligo and associated autoimmune diseases in caucasian probands and their families. Pigment Cell Res 2003;16: 208214
  • 45
    Le Poole IC, Sarangarajan R, Zhao Y, Stennett LS, Brown TL, Sheth P, Miki T, Boissy RE. A novel gene associated with vitiligo. Pigment Cell Res 2001;14: 475484
  • 46
    Casp CB, She JX, McCormack WT. Genetic association of the catalase gene (CAT) with vitiligo susceptibility. Pigment Cell Res 2002;15: 6266
  • 47
    Le Poole IC, van den Wijngaard RM, Westerhof W, Das PK. Tenascin is overexpressed in vitiligo lesional skin and inhibits melanocyte adhesion. Br J Dermatol 1997;137: 171178
  • 48
    Alkhateeb A, Stetler GL, Old W, Talbert J, Uhlhorn C, Taylor M, Fox A, Miller C, Dills DG, Ridgway EC, Bennett DC, Fain PR, Spritz RA. Mapping of an autoimmunity susceptibility locus (AIS1) to chromosome 1p31.3-p32.2. Hum Mol Genet 2002;11: 661667
  • 49
    Alkhateeb A, Fain PR, Fox A, Bennett DC, Spritz RA. FOXD3 promoter variants co-segregate with generalized vitiligo in chormosome IP-linked families. Am J Hum Genet 2003;63(Suppl.):A21
  • 50
    Cummings MP, Nordlund JJ. Chemical leukoderma: fact or fancy. Am J Contact Dermatitis 1995;6: 122127
  • 51
    Bleehen SS, Pathak MA, Hori Y, Fitzpatrick TB. Depigmentation of skin with 4-isopropylcatechol, mercaptoamines and other compounds. J Invest Dermatol 1968;50: 103117
  • 52
    Gellin GA, Maibach HI, Misiaszek MH. Detection of environmental depigmenting substances. Contact Dermatitis 1979;5: 201213
  • 53
    Ito Y, Jimbow K, Ito S. Depigmentation of black guinea pig skin by topical application of cysteaminylphenol, cysteinylphenol, and related compounds. J Invest Dermatol 1987;88: 7782
  • 54
    Sun CC. Allergic contact dermatitis of the face from contact with nickel and ammoniated mercury in spectacle frames and skin-lightening creams. Contact Dermatitis 1987;17: 306309
  • 55
    Bickley LK, Papa CM. Chronic arsenicism with vitiligo, hyperthyroidism, and cancer. N J Med 1989;86: 377380
  • 56
    Yusof Z, Pratap RC, Nor M, Reddy TN. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome – a case report. Med J Malaysia 1990;45: 7073
  • 57
    Selvaag E. Chloroquine-induced vitiligo. A case report and review of the literature. Acta Derm Venereol 1996;76: 166167
  • 58
    Levin CY, Maibach H. Exogenous ochronosis. An update on clinical features, causative agents and treatment options. Clin Dermatol 2001;2: 213217
  • 59
    Flickinger CW. The benzenediols: catechol, resorcinol and hydroquinone – a review of the industrial toxicology and current industrial exposure limits. Am Industr Hyg Assoc J 1976;37: 596606
  • 60
    Shelley W. p-Cresol: cause of ink-induced hair depigmentation in mice. Br J Dermatol 1974;90: 169174
  • 61
    Oliver EA, Schwartz L, Warren LH. Occupational leukoderma. JAMA 1939;113: 927928
  • 62
    Quevedo WC Jr, Fitzpatrick TB, Szabo G, Jimbow K. Biology of the melanin pigmentary system. In: FitzpatrickTB, EisenAZ, WolffK, FreedbergIM, AustenKF, eds. Dermatology in General Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1986. pp. 224251
  • 63
    O'Malley MA, Mathias T, Priddy M, Molina D, Grote AA, Halperin WE. Occupational vitiligo due to unsuspected presence of phenolic antioxidant byproducts in commercial bulk rubber. J Occup Med 1988;30: 512516
  • 64
    Gellin GA, Possick PA, Perone VB. Depigmentation from 4-tertiary butyl catechol – an experimental study. J Invest Dermatol 1970;55: 190197
  • 65
    Kahn G. Depigmentation caused by phenolic detergent germicides. Arch Dermatol 1970;102: 177187
  • 66
    Bajaj AK, Gupta SC, Chatterjee AK. Contact depigmentation from free para-tertiary-butylphenol in bindi adhesive. Contact Dermatitis 1990;22: 99102
  • 67
    Calnan CD. Occupational leukoderma from alkyl phenols. Proc R Soc Med 1973;66: 258260
  • 68
    Gellin G, Maibach H. Detection of environmental depigmenting chemicals. In: MarzulliF, MaibchH, eds. Dermatotoxicology. Washington, DC: Hemisphere; 1983. pp. 443459
  • 69
    Rodermund O-E, Jörgens H, Müller R, Marsteller H-J. Systemische verönderungen bei berufsbedingter vitiligo. Hautarzt 1975;26: 312316
  • 70
    James O, Mayes RW, Stevenson CJ. Occupational vitiligo induced by p-tert-butylphenol: a systemic disease? Lancet 1977;2: 12171219
  • 71
    Yang F, Boissy RE. Effects of 4-tertiary butylphenol (4-TBP) on the tyrosinase activity in human melanocytes. Pigment Cell Res 1999;12: 237245
  • 72
    Yang F, Sarangarajan R, Le Poole IC, Medrano EE, Boissy RE. The cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by 4-tertiary butylphenol in human melanocytes is independent of tyrosinase activity. J Invest Dermatol 2000;114: 157164
  • 73
    Bowen AR, Hanks AN, Allen SM, Alexander A, Diedrich MJ, Grossman D. Apoptosis regulators and responses in human melanocytic and keratinocytic cells. J Invest Dermatol 2003;120: 4855
  • 74
    Yang F, Abdel-Malek Z, Boissy RE. Effects of commonly used mitogens on the cytotoxicity of 4-tertiary butylphenol to human melanocytes. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 1999;35: 566570
  • 75
    McGuire J, Hinders J. Biochemical basis for depigmentation of skin by phenol germicides. J Invest Dermatol 1971;57: 256261
  • 76
    Jimbow K, Obata H, Pathak MA, Fitzpatrick TB. Mechanism of depigmentation by hydroquinone. J Invest Dermatol 1974;62: 436449
  • 77
    Mans DRA, Lafleur MVM, Westmijze EJ, Horn IR, Bets D, Schuurhuis GJ, Lankelma J, Retel J. Reactions of glutathione with the catechol, the ortho-quinone and the semi-quinone free radical of etoposide. Consequences for DNA inactivation. Biochem Pharmacol 1992;43: 17611768
  • 78
    Halliwell B, Chirico S. Lipid peroxidation: its mechanism, measurement, and significance. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57(Suppl. 5):715S725S
  • 79
    Nakagawa Y, Tayama S, Moore G, Moldeus P. Cytotoxic effects of biphenyl and hydroxybiphenyls on isolated rat hepatocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 1993;45: 19591965
  • 80
    Picardo M, Passi S, Nazzaro-Porro M, Breathnach A, Zompetta C, Faggioni A, Riley P. Mechanism of antitumoral activity of catechols in culture. Biochem Pharmacol 1987;36: 417425
  • 81
    Manga P, Sarangarajan R, Ramnath E, Boissy RE. 4-(tert)butylphenol cytotoxicity is mediated by tyrosinase related protein-1. Mol Biol Cell 2002;13S: 306a
  • 82
    Le Poole IC, Yang F, Brown TL, Cornelius J, Babcock GF, Das PK, Boissy RE. Altered gene expression in melanocytes exposed to 4-tertiary butyl phenol (4-TBP): upregulation of the A2b adenosine receptor. J Invest Dermatol 1999;113: 725731
  • 83
    Jimbow K, Chen H, Park JS, Thomas PD. Increased sensitivity of melanocytes to oxidative stress and abnormal expression of tyrosinase-related protein in vitiligo. Br J Dermatol 2001;144: 5565
  • 84
    Kehrer JP. Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and disease. Crit Rev Toxicol 1993;23: 2148
  • 85
    Darr D, Fridovich I. Free radicals in cutaneous biology. J Invest Dermatol 1994;102: 671675
  • 86
    Shvedova AA, Kommineni C, Jeffries BA, Castranova V, Tyurina YY, Tyurin VA, Serbinova EA, Fabisiak JP, Kagan VE. Redox cycling of phenol induces oxidative stress in human epidermal keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol 2000;114: 354364
  • 87
    Ros JR, Rodriguez-Lopez JN, Varon R, Garcia-Canovas F. Kinetic study of the oxidation of 4-tert-butylphenol by tyrosinase. Eur J Biochem 1994;222: 449452
  • 88
    Rodriguez-Lopez JN, Ros-Martinez JR, Varon R, Garcia-Canovas F. Calibration of a Clark-type oxygen electrode by tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of 4-tert-butylcatechol. Anal Biochem 1992;202: 356360
  • 89
    Jimenez M, Garcia-Carmona F. Hydrogen peroxide-dependent 4-t-butylphenol hydroxylation by tyrosinase – a new catalytic activity. Biochim Biophys Acta 1996;1297: 3339
  • 90
    Schallreuter KU, Moore J, Wood JM, Beazley WD, Gaze DC, Tobin DJ, Marshall HS, Panske A, Panzig E, Hibberts NA. In vivo and in vitro evidence for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo and its successful removal by a UVB-activated pseudocatalase. J Invest Dermatol Symp Proc 1999;4: 9196
  • 91
    Rokos H, Beazley WD, Schallreuter KU. Oxidative stress in vitiligo: photo-oxidation of pterins produces H(2)O(2) and pterin-6-carboxylic acid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002;292: 805811
  • 92
    Cario-Andre M, Gauthier Y, Pain C, Taieb A. SP-21 Ex vivo vitiligo vs control melanocyte susceptibility to catecholamines and hydrogen peroxide. Pigment Cell Res 2003;16: 587588
  • 93
    Maresca V, Roccella M, Roccella F, Camera E, Del Porto G, Passi S, Grammatico P, Picardo M. Increased sensitivity to peroxidative agents as a possible pathogenic factor of melanocyte damage in vitiligo. J Invest Dermatol 1997;109: 310313
  • 94
    Kagan VE, Kisin ER, Kawai K, Serinkan BF, Osipov AN, Serbinova EA, Wolinsky I, Shvedova AA. Toward mechanism-based antioxidant interventions: lessons from natural antioxidants. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002;959: 188198
  • 95
    Beal MF. Oxidatively modified proteins in aging and disease. Free Radic Biol Med 2002;32: 797803
  • 96
    Singh K. Oxidants, antioxidants and diseases – a brief review. Indian J Med Sci 1997;51: 226230
  • 97
    Sevanian A, Hodis H. Antioxidants and atherosclerosis: an overview. Biofactors 1997;6: 385390
  • 98
    Maxwell SR, Lip GY. Free radicals and antioxidants in cardiovascular disease. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997;44: 307317
  • 99
    Meydani M, Meisler JG. A closer look at vitamin E. Can this antioxidant prevent chronic diseases? Postgrad Med 1997;102: 199201
  • 100
    Dragsted LO. Natural antioxidants in chemoprevention. Arch Toxicol Suppl 1998;20: 209226
  • 101
    Schallreuter KU, Wood JM, Berger J. Low catalase levels in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo. J Invest Dermatol 1991;97: 10811085
  • 102
    Kaufmann SH, Hengartner MO. Programmed cell death: alive and well in the new millennium. Trends Cell Biol 2001;11: 526534
  • 103
    Penninger JM, Kroemer G. Mitochondria AIF and caspases – rivaling for cell death execution. Nature Cell Biol 2003;5: 9799
  • 104
    Hockenbery DM. The bcl-2 gene: a regulator of programmed cell death. In: MihichE, SchimkeRT, eds. Apoptosis. New York: Plenum Press; 1994. pp. 157177
  • 105
    Lee YJ, Chen JC, Amoscato AA, Bennouna J, Spitz DR, Suntharalingam M, Rhee JG. Protective role of Bcl2 in metabolic oxidative stress-induced cell death. J Cell Sci 2001;114: 677684
  • 106
    Klein-Parker HA, Warshawski L, Tron VA. Melanocytes in human skin express bcl-2 protein. J Cutan Pathol 1994;21: 297301
  • 107
    van den Oord JJ, Vandeghinste N, De Ley M, De Wolf-Peeters C. Bcl-2 expression in human melanocytes and melanocytic tumors. Am J Pathol 1994;145: 294300
  • 108
    Plettenberg A, Ballaun C, Pammer J, Mildner M, Strunk D, Weninger W, Tschachler E. Human melanocytes and melanoma cells constitutively express the bcl-2 proto-oncogene in situ and in cell culture. Am J Pathol 1995;146: 651659
  • 109
    Tsujimoto Y, Shimizu S. Bcl-2 family: life or death switch. FEBS Lett 2000;466: 610
  • 110
    Veis DJ, Sorenson CM, Shutter JR, Korsmeyer SJ. Bcl-2-deficient mice demonstrate fulminant lymphoid apoptosis, polycystic kidneys, and hypopigmented hair. Cell 1993;75: 229240