Sex and the subgingival microbiome: Do female sex steroids affect periodontal bacteria?


  • Purnima S. Kumar


Fluctuations in the levels of sex steroid hormones begin at menarche and end with menopause in the human female. The association between gingivitis and increases in systemic sex steroids has been extensively reported and the biological mechanisms underlying this florid inflammatory state have been examined over several decades. The purpose of this review is to critically examine the evidence in the literature on the effect of female sex steroids on oral bacterial communities.