Sex and the subgingival microbiome: Do female sex steroids affect periodontal bacteria?
Article first published online: 13 DEC 2012
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S
Volume 61, Issue 1, pages 103–124, February 2013
How to Cite
Kumar, P. S. (2013), Sex and the subgingival microbiome: Do female sex steroids affect periodontal bacteria?. Periodontology 2000, 61: 103–124. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.2011.00398.x
- Issue published online: 13 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 13 DEC 2012
Fluctuations in the levels of sex steroid hormones begin at menarche and end with menopause in the human female. The association between gingivitis and increases in systemic sex steroids has been extensively reported and the biological mechanisms underlying this florid inflammatory state have been examined over several decades. The purpose of this review is to critically examine the evidence in the literature on the effect of female sex steroids on oral bacterial communities.