Cementoblast loss and root resorption on the root surface was registered histologically after removal and immediate replantation of maxillary central incisors in monkeys (Cecropithecus aethiops). Incisors were removed with either a conventional extraction technique using forceps or with a special designed extrusion instrument and in both cases teeth were immediately replanted. Altogether 18 monkeys were used for the experiments in which 9 monkeys were sacrificed after 3 d and 9 animals after 8 wk. Histological analysis was made in horizontal sections perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth using either 24 measuring points or 12 sections. Histometric analysis showed extensive cementoblast loss in the periodontal ligament (PDL) and with a maximum of damage occurring on the corner surfaces of the root. Extracted teeth showed significantly more extensive cementoblast loss than extruded teeth. Root resorption was also found in the corner locations and was significantly more frequent in extracted than in extruded teeth. There was a similarity in the distribution of cementoblast loss and root resorption indicating that root resorption develops in the same areas where cementoblast loss takes place, i.e. locations that are more compressed during removal of the tooth and must have caused by mechanical damage to the PDL exerted on the root surface during tooth removal.