To determine whether postmenopausal bone loss and factors associated with osteoporosis affect tooth retention, we examined vertebral and proximal femoral (postcranial) bone mineral density in relation to tooth loss and attachment loss in a cross-sectional study of 135 postmenopausal women (age range 41–70 yr). Women had at least 10 teeth and no evidence of moderate or severe periodontal disease. Full-mouth attachment loss measurements were made using a pressure-sensitive probe, and bone density was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attachment loss was correlated with tooth loss (number of remaining teeth, radiologically determined), but not with vertebral or proximal femur bone density. Multivariate analysis showed current smoking (p = 0.01), years since menopause (p = 0.02) and the interaction of age and current smoking (p < 0.01), to be statistically significant predictors of attachment loss in our study population.