Relationship between obesity, glucose tolerance, and periodontal disease in Japanese women: the Hisayama study


Toshiyuki Saito, DDS, PhD, Department of Preventive Dentistry, Kyushu University Faculty of Dental Science, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812–8582, Japan
Tel/Fax: + 81 92 642 6352/6354


Background:  Recent studies have reported a relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Obesity is the strongest risk factor for type 2 diabetes, which is, in turn, a risk factor for periodontal disease. An oral glucose tolerance test is necessary to diagnose diabetes; however, no study has examined the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease by taking oral glucose tolerance test results into consideration.

Methods:  In all, 584 Japanese women aged between 40 and 79 years old, with at least 10 teeth, underwent health examinations. Body mass index, waist–hip ratio, body fat, and oral glucose tolerance test results were used as independent variables with known risk factors for periodontal disease. Mean probing pocket depth and mean attachment loss were used as the dependent variables.

Results:  In all of the analyses, body mass index, body fat, and waist–hip ratio were significantly associated with the highest quintile of mean probing pocket depth, even when adjusted for oral glucose tolerance test results. In the multivariate analysis, the subjects with the highest quartile of body mass index had a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for the highest quintile of mean probing pocket depth [OR, 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1–8.9; p < 0.001], whereas neither impaired glucose tolerance nor diabetes were significantly associated with deep pockets. The relationships between the obesity indexes and mean attachment loss did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusion:  Obesity was associated with deep pockets in Japanese women, even after adjusting for oral glucose tolerance test.