Background and Objective: Diabetes and periodontitis are associated with each other. Adipokines, specifically adiponectin and resistin, are secreted from adipocytes and are thought to cause insulin resistance in rodents. Additionally, adiponectin and resistin may play a role in inflammation and immune responses. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between serum levels of adipokines and periodontal conditions in elderly Japanese people with and without periodontitis.
Material and Methods: A total of 158 Japanese men and women (76 years old) with or without periodontitis were selected for the study. Serum adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations were compared between subjects with and without periodontitis.
Results: Serum resistin levels and total leukocyte counts in subjects with periodontitis were higher than in control subjects. No significant differences were observed in adiponectin, IL-6 and TNF-α levels between subjects with and without periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis showed that periodontitis with at least one tooth that displayed a probing pocket depth of ≥6 mm was significantly associated with higher serum resistin levels (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–4.0). When excluding periodontitis subjects with ≤10% of bleeding on probing and excluding control subjects with >10% bleeding on probing, differences between groups and odds ratio increased. Serum adiponectin tended to decrease in patients with periodontitis, albeit not significantly.
Conclusion: Increased serum resistin levels were significantly associated with periodontal condition, especially when considering bleeding on probing, in elderly Japanese people. There was also a trend, though non-significant, toward decreased levels of adiponectin in subjects with periodontitis.