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Keywords:

  • gingival crevicular fluid;
  • inflammation;
  • infrared spectroscopy;
  • periodontitis

Xiang XM, Liu KZ, Man A, Ghiabi E, Cholakis A, Scott DA. Periodontitis-specific molecular signatures in gingival crevicular fluid. J Periodont Res 2010; 45: 345–352. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S

Background and Objective:  Periodontitis is currently diagnosed almost entirely on gross clinical manifestations that have been in situ for more than 50 years without significant improvement. The general objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate whether mid-infrared spectroscopy can be used to identify disease-specific molecular alterations to the overall biochemical profile of tissues and body fluids.

Material and Methods:  A total of 190 gingival crevicular fluid samples were obtained from periodontitis (n = 64), gingivitis (n = 61) and normal sites (n = 65). Corresponding infrared absorption spectra of gingival crevicular fluid samples were acquired and processed, and the relative contributions of key functional groups in the infrared spectra were analysed. The qualitative assessment of clinical relevance of these gingival crevicular fluid spectra was interpreted with the multivariate statistical analysis-linear discriminant analysis.

Results:  Using infrared spectroscopy, we have been able to identify four molecular signatures (representing vibrations in amide I, amide II/tyrosine rings and symmetric and asymmetric inline image stretching vibrations of phosphodiester groups in DNA) in the gingival crevicular fluid of subjects with periodontitis or gingivitis and healthy control subjects that clearly demarcate healthy and diseased periodontal tissues. Furthermore, the diagnostic accuracy for distinction between periodontally healthy and periodontitis sites revealed by multivariate classification of gingival crevicular fluid spectra was 98.4% for a training set of samples and 93.1% for a validation set.

Conclusion:  We have established that mid-infrared spectroscopy can be used to identify periodontitis-specific molecular signatures in gingival crevicular fluid and to confirm clinical diagnoses. Future longitudinal studies will assess whether mid-infrared spectroscopy represents a potential prognostic tool, recognized as key to advancement of periodontics.