Davies RC, Jaedicke KM, Barksby HE, Jitprasertwong P, Al-Shahwani RM, Taylor JJ, Preshaw PM. Do patients with aggressive periodontitis have evidence of diabetes? A pilot study. J Periodont Res 2011; 46: 663–672. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S
Background and Objective: Complex relationships exist between diabetes and periodontal disease. Diabetes is accepted as a risk factor for periodontal disease, and recent evidence supports the existence of a bidirectional relationship between these two diseases. It has been hypothesized that inflammation, lipids and adipokines may mediate these relationships. However, research regarding the above relationships with respect to aggressive periodontitis is very limited. This pilot study aimed to investigate whether patients with aggressive periodontitis (not previously diagnosed with diabetes) have evidence of diabetes and have altered serum levels of inflammatory mediators, lipids and adipokines.
Material and Methods: Glycaemic control markers (random plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin), inflammatory mediators (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interferon-γ and interleukin-18), lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) and adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin) were measured in serum samples from 30 patients with aggressive periodontitis and 30 age- and sex-matched periodontally healthy control subjects, none of whom had a previous diagnosis of diabetes.
Results: Levels of glycaemic control markers, inflammatory mediators, lipids and adipokines were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the aggressive periodontitis patients and healthy subjects for unadjusted and adjusted analyses (adjusting for body mass index, smoking, ethnicity, age and sex). The p-value for the adjusted analysis of adiponectin in female aggressive periodontitis patients compared with the female control subjects reached 0.064, the mean adiponectin level being lower in the female aggressive periodontitis patients (4.94 vs. 5.97 μg/mL).
Conclusion: This pilot study provided no evidence to suggest that patients with aggressive periodontitis (not previously diagnosed with diabetes) have evidence of diabetes or altered serum levels of inflammatory mediators, lipids and adipokines.