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Abstract: Bisphosphonates are used clinically to inhibit bone resorption but they may also cause renal damage. For the profiling of new, potent bisphosphonates, their adverse renal effects were investigated in 2 rat models. In the first model, bisphosphonate was repeatedly injected (1 mg/kg, subcutaneously) over 2 weeks and the urinary excretion of malate dehydrogenase was monitored to assess nephrotoxic potential. Of the 6 new compounds tested, 3 markedly elevated malate dehydrogenase whereas 3 others caused only minor changes similar to those observed with 6 reference bisphosphonates that are already used clinically. On the basis of a therapeutic index (inhibition of bone resorption versus renal effects) 7-180 fold greater than that of other analogues, the compound CGP 42446 was further profiled. In the second model, CGP 42446 or pamidronate was infused (1.5-50 mg/kg, intravenously) into anaesthetized rats and the serum urea concentration was monitored as an indicator of renal dysfunction. Both compounds elevated serum urea in a time-and dose-dependent manner, but the ED100 value for CGP 42446 was 3.8-fold higher than that of pamidronate. It is concluded that CGP 42446 (zoledronate) has a low nephrotoxic potential and can be further developed as a new, potent inhibitor of bone resorption.